Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
Key Event Description
Embryotoxicity refers to lethality and teratogenicity (ex: reduced growth, shortened limbs, skeletal abnormalities, beak defects, foot deformities, altered organ sizes, heart deformities, microphthalmia, liver necrosis).
DLC-induced embryolethality has been demonstrated in several species of birds using egg injection studies, which mimic maternal deposition of chemicals to the egg. Dose-dependent increases in the embryotoxic effects of TCDD, PeCDF, TCDF, PCB 77 and PCB 126 were demonstrated in egg injection studies conducted with chicken, American kestrel, bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), common tern, double-crested cormorant, eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), Japanese quail, ring-necked pheasant and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) embryos. In all cases the chicken was observed to be much more sensitive than other species. The mono-ortho PCBs 70, 105, 118, 156 and 157 also increased the incidence of mortality in chicken embryos, however these compounds were approximately 3 orders of magnitude less potent than PCB 126.
Examination of avian embryos and chicks both in controlled laboratory settings and in the wild has linked DLC exposure with a number of developmental abnormalities including reduced growth, shortened limbs, skeletal abnormalities, beak defects, foot deformities, altered organ sizes, heart deformities, microphthalmia, liver necrosis, hemorrhage and edema. As was observed with embryolethality, chicken embryos were highly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of PCBs in comparison to other species.
How It Is Measured or Detected
Domain of Applicability
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