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Jonathan T. Haselman, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Duluth, MN, USA <email@example.com>
Sigmund J. Degitz, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Duluth, MN, USA <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Michael W. Hornung, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Duluth, MN, USA <email@example.com>
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OECD Project 1.29: A catalog of putative AOPs that will enhance the utility of US EPA Toxcast high throughput screening data for hazard identification
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This AOP describes how intracellular iodine deficits in thyroid follicular cells via chemical inhibition of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) decrease thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and cause delayed amphibian metamorphosis, or in extreme cases, arrests development. Amphibian metamorphosis is mediated by TH and successful completion of metamorphosis is generally required for organism survival. NIS is a critical transport protein that mediates iodine uptake into thyroid follicular cells making it available for thyroperoxidase (see TPO AOP) to catalyze its covalent bonding to tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin. TPO subsequently couples the iodinated tyrosines to form thyroxine (T4). Conversion of T4 to the active hormone, triiodothyronine (T3), is catalyzed by type I or II deiodinase enzymes (see DIO1 and DIO2 pAOPs) located within the peripheral organs and tissues, which then binds to thyroid receptor (TR). Activated TR then stimulates gene expression that drives the anatomical and physiological changes encompassed by the metamorphic process including limb emergence and development, lung development, gill and tail resorption, gut remodeling, metabolic profile changes in the liver, skin keratinization, etc. The model NIS inhibitor, perchlorate, has been tested in amphibian model species Xenopus laevis using in vivo study designs aiming to characterize temporal profiles of glandular hormone levels in addition to serum hormone levels and associated thyroid gland histopathology. Although there are only a few studies in amphibians that directly address NIS inhibition, these studies provide a strong weight of evidence supporting the specificity and essentiality of NIS inhibition leading to well-supported essential key events downstream.
Summary of the AOP
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Molecular Initiating Event
|Molecular Initiating Event||Support for Essentiality|
|Na+/I- symporter (NIS), Inhibition||Strong|
|Amphibian metamorphosis, Altered|
Relationships Among Key Events and the Adverse Outcome
|Event||Description||Triggers||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
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Life Stage Applicability
|African clawed frog||Xenopus laevis||Strong||NCBI|
Overall Assessment of the AOP
Domain of Applicability
Life Stage Applicability,
Elaborate on the domains of applicability listed in the summary section above. Specifically, provide the literature supporting, or excluding, certain domains.
Essentiality of the Key Events
Molecular Initiating Event Summary,
Key Event Summary
Provide an overall assessment of the essentiality for the key events in the AOP. Support calls for individual key events can be included in the molecular initiating event, key event, and adverse outcome tables above.
Weight of Evidence Summary
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Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)
Hornung, M.W., Degitz, S.J., Korte, L.M., Olson, J.M., Kosian, P.A., Linnum, A.L. and Tietge, J.E., 2010. Inhibition of thyroid hormone release from cultured amphibian thyroid glands by methimazole, 6-propylthiouracil, and perchlorate. Toxicological Sciences, 118(1), pp.42-51.
Tietge, J.E., Holcombe, G.W., Flynn, K.M., Kosian, P.A., Korte, J.J., Anderson, L.E., Wolf, D.C. and Degitz, S.J., 2005. Metamorphic inhibition of Xenopus laevis by sodium perchlorate: effects on development and thyroid histology. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(4), pp.926-933.
Tietge, J.E., Butterworth, B.C., Haselman, J.T., Holcombe, G.W., Hornung, M.W., Korte, J.J., Kosian, P.A., Wolfe, M. and Degitz, S.J., 2010. Early temporal effects of three thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors in Xenopus laevis. Aquatic Toxicology, 98(1), pp.44-50.