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Sally A. Mayasich, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Duluth, MN, USA <email@example.com>
Jonathan T. Haselman, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Duluth, MN, USA <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Sigmund J. Degitz, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Duluth, MN, USA <email@example.com>
Michael W. Hornung, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Duluth, MN, USA <firstname.lastname@example.org>
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OECD Project 1.29: A catalog of putative AOPs that will enhance the utility of US EPA Toxcast high throughput screening data for hazard identification
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This putative AOP describes an adverse outcome that results from the inhibition of Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO1) during amphibian metamorphosis. Initial development of this AOP is based on literature in which amphibian deiodinases are genetically disrupted and prediction from tissue expression patterns. Chemical inhibition of DIO1, the molecular-initiating event (MIE), results in decreased transformation of thyroxine (T4) to the active form, 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3), but also decreased inactivation of T3 to 3,3’,5’-triiodothyronine (rT3). Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal sequential development of amphibian tissues and organs, and activities of the three deiodinases found in amphibians, as in mammals, function in a highly regulated balance. Therefore, chemicals that interfere with the DIO1 catalyzing reaction of T4 to T3 have the potential to cause insufficiency of the active form, but also disrupt the balance between active T3 and inactive rT3. Consequences of T4/T3/rT3 imbalance may vary based on timing of exposure and produce different effects in different tissues at different developmental stages. For example, T3 insufficiency due to DIO1 inhibition in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, within several days post-fertilization (pre-metamorphosis) could affect brain development, and like the DIO2 enzyme, DIO1 inhibition in peripheral tissues through the larval phase and post-metamorphic climax may cause alterations in limb development, intestinal remodeling, gill resorption and/or tail resorption.
Summary of the AOP
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Molecular Initiating Event
|Molecular Initiating Event||Support for Essentiality|
|Deiodinase 1, Inhibition||Weak|
|Event||Support for Essentiality|
|Triiodothyronine (T3) in tissues, Decreased||Strong|
|Triiodothyronine (T3) in serum, Decreased||Moderate|
|Amphibian metamorphosis, Altered|
Relationships Among Key Events and the Adverse Outcome
|Event||Description||Triggers||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
|Deiodinase 1, Inhibition||Directly Leads to||Triiodothyronine (T3) in tissues, Decreased||Moderate||Weak|
|Triiodothyronine (T3) in tissues, Decreased||Directly Leads to||Amphibian metamorphosis, Altered||Strong||Moderate|
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Life Stage Applicability
|African clawed frog||Xenopus laevis||Weak||NCBI|
Overall Assessment of the AOP
Domain of Applicability
Life Stage Applicability,
Elaborate on the domains of applicability listed in the summary section above. Specifically, provide the literature supporting, or excluding, certain domains.
Essentiality of the Key Events
Molecular Initiating Event Summary,
Key Event Summary
Provide an overall assessment of the essentiality for the key events in the AOP. Support calls for individual key events can be included in the molecular initiating event, key event, and adverse outcome tables above.
Weight of Evidence Summary
Provide an overall summary of the weight of evidence based on the evaluations of the individual linkages from the Key Event Relationship pages.
Provide an overall discussion of the quantitative information available for this AOP. Support calls for the individual relationships can be included in the Key Event Relationship table above.
Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)
Galton, V.A., Schneider, M.J., Clark, A.S., St. Germain, D.L. (2009). “Life without thyroxine to 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine conversion: studies in mice devoid of the 5’-deiodinases.” Endocrinology 150(6): 2957–2963.
Kuiper, G.G.J.M., Klootwijk, W., Morvan-Dubois, G., Destree, O., Darras, V.M., Van der Geyten, S., Demeneix, B.A., Visser, T.J. (2006). “Characterization of recombinant Xenopus laevis Type I Iodothyronine deiodinase: Substitution of a proline residue in the catalytic center by serine (Pro132Ser) restores sensitivity to 6-propyl-2-thiouricil.” Endocrinology 147(7): 3519-3529.
Morvan-Dubois, G., Demeneix, B.A., Sachs, L.M. (2008). “Xenopus laevis as a model for studying thyroid hormone signaling: From development to metamorphosis.” Mol Cell Endocrinol. 293: 71-79.
Morvan-Dubois, G., Sebillot, A., Kuiper, G.G.J.M., Verhoelst, C.H.J., Darras, V.M., Visser, T.J., Demeneix, B.A. (2006). “Deiodinase activity is present in Xenopus laevis during early embryogenesis.” Endocrinolgy 147(10): 4941-4949.