Key Event Overview
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AOPs Including This Key Event
Level of Biological Organization
How this Key Event works
Adequate swimming performance in fish is essential for behaviour such as foraging, predator avoidance and reproduction.
How it is Measured or Detected
For fish larvae, automated observation and tracking systems are commercially available and increasingly used for measuring swimming performance including distance travelled, duration of movements, swimming speed, etc. This kind of measurements is often included in publications describing effects of chemicals in zebrafish larvae (Hagenaars et al., 2014; Stinckens et al., 2016; Vergauwen et al., 2015).
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable to fish.
Hagenaars, A., Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Bervoets, L., Knapen, D., 2014. PFOSaffects posterior swim bladder chamber inflation and swimming performanceof zebrafish larvae. Aquat. Toxicol. 157, 225–235.
Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Schroeder, A.L., Maho, W., Blackwell, B., Witter, H.,Blust, R., Ankley, G.T., Covaci, A., Villenueve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2016. Disruption of thyroid hormone balance after 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure causes swim bladder inflation impairment—part II: zebrafish. Aquat. Toxicol. 173:204-17.
Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Maho, Walid; Stickens, Evelyn; Hagenaars, An; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries. 2014. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test. Chemosphere. 139: 9-17.