Key Event Overview
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AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Event Type||Essentiality|
|Protein Alkylation leading to Liver Fibrosis||KE||Strong|
|human and other cells in culture||Strong|
|Rattus norvegicus||Rattus norvegicus||Strong||NCBI|
Level of Biological Organization
How this Key Event works
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of cytokines are ubiquitous, multifunctional, and essential to survival. They play important roles in growth and development, inflammation and repair, and host immunity. The mammalian TGF-β isoforms (TGF-β1, β2 and β3) are secreted as latent precursors and have multiple cell surface receptors of which at least two mediate signal transduction. Autocrine and paracrine effects of TGF-βs can be modified by extracellular matrix, neighbouring cells and other cytokines. The vital role of the TGF-β family is illustrated by the fact that approximately 50% of TGF-1 gene knockout mice die in utero and the remainder succumb to uncontrolled inflammation after birth. The role of TGF-β in homeostatic and pathogenic processes suggests numerous applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases characterised by inflammation and fibrosis.    Abnormal TGF-β regulation and function are implicated in a growing number of fibrotic and inflammatory pathologies, including pulmonary fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, glomerulonephritis and diabetic nephropathy, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, Marfan syndrome, hypertrophic scars, systemic sclerosis, myocarditis, and Crohn’s disease.  TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines. TGF-β is synthesized as a non-active pro-form, forms a complex with two latent associated proteins latency-associated protein (LAP) and latent TGF- β binding protein (LTBP) and undergoes protolithic cleavage by the endopeptidase furin to generate the mature TGF-β dimer. Among the TGF-βs, six distinct isoforms have been discovered although only the TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 isoforms are expressed in mammals, and their human genes are located on chromosomes 19q13, 1q41 and 14q24, respectively. Out of the three TGF-β isoforms (β1, β2 and β3) only TGF-β1 was linked to fibrogenesis and is the most potent fibrogenic factor for hepatic stellate cells. . During fibrogenesis, tissue and blood levels of active TGF-β are elevated and overexpression of TGF-β1 in transgenic mice can induce fibrosis. Additionally, experimental fibrosis can be inhibited by anti-TGF-β treatments with neutralizing antibodies or soluble TGF-β receptors  TGF-β1 induces its own mRNA to sustain high levels in local sites of injury.The effects of TGF-β1 are classically mediated by intracellular signalling via Smad proteins. Smads 2 and 3 are stimulatory whereas Smad 7 is inhibitory.  Smad1/5/8, MAP kinase (mitogen-activated protein) and PI3 kinase are further signalling pathways in different cell types for TGF-β1 effects.
TGF-β is found in all tissues, but is particularly abundant in bone, lung, kidney and placental tissue. TGF-β is produced by many, but not all parenchymal cell types, and is also produced or released by infiltrating cells such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and platelets. Following wounding or inflammation, all these cells are potential sources of TGF-β. In general, the release and activation of TGF-β stimulates the production of various extracellular matrix proteins and inhibits the degradation of these matrix proteins. 
TGF-β 1 is produced by every leukocyte lineage, including lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and its expression serves in both autocrine and paracrine modes to control the differentiation, proliferation, and state of activation of these immune cells. 
In the liver TGF-β1 is released by activated Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and platelets; in the further course of events also activated hepatic stellate cells express TGF-β1. Hepatocytes do not produce TGF-β1 but are implicated in intracellular activation of latent TGF-β1.
TGF-β1 is the most established mediator and regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) which further contributes to the production of extracellular matrix. It has been shown that TGF-β1 mediates EMT by inducing snail-1 transcription factor and tyrosine phosphorylation of Smad2/3 with subsequent recruitment of Smad4.      
TGF-β1 induces apoptosis and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) High levels of VEGF and TGF-β1 are present in many tumors. Crosstalk between the signalling pathways activated by these growth factors controls endothelial cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. 
How it is Measured or Detected
There are several assays for TGB-β1 measurement available.
e.g. Human TGF-β1 ELISA Kit. The Human TGF-β 1 ELISA (Enzyme –Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human TGF-β1 in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, and urine. This assay employs an antibody specific for human TGF-β1 coated on a 96-well plate. Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and TGF-β1 present in a sample is bound to the wells by the immobilized antibody. The wells are washed and biotinylated anti-human TGF-β1 antibody is added. After washing away unbound biotinylated antibody, HRP- conjugated streptavidin is pipetted to the wells. The wells are again washed, a TMB substrate solution is added to the wells and colour develops in proportion to the amount of TGF-β1 bound. The StopSolution changes the colour from blue to yellow, and the intensity of the colour is measured at 450 nm 
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
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