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Event Title

swimming speed, Reduced

Key Event Overview

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AOPs Including This Key Event

AOP Name Event Type Essentiality
Sodium channel inhibition leading to reduced survival KE Moderate
sodium channel inhibition leading to increased predation KE Moderate
Ether-a-go-go (ERG) voltage-gated potassium channel inhibition leading to reduced survival KE Moderate

Taxonomic Applicability

Name Scientific Name Evidence Links
medaka Oryzias latipes Strong NCBI
Gammarus pulex Gammarus pulex Strong NCBI
Hydra attenuata Hydra vulgaris Moderate NCBI

Level of Biological Organization

Biological Organization

How this Key Event works

How it is Measured or Detected

The swimming speed may be measured by the use of an aquatic tunnel, wherein the researcher controls the speed of the water flow (see Tierney, 2001), or by using video equipment to record the distance the organism swims within a period of time (e.g., Kavitha and Rao, 2007).

Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability


De Lange, H.J., Noordoven, W., Murk, A.J., Lürling, M., and Peeters, E.T.H.M. 2006. Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Aquatic toxicology 78:209-216.

Kavitha, P. and Venkateswara Rao, J. 2007. Oxidative stress and locomotor behaviour response as biomarkers for assessing recovery status of mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis after lethal effect of an organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 87:182-188.

Nassef, M., Kim, S.G., Seki, M., Kang, I.J., Hano, T., Shimasaki, Y., and Oshima, Y. 2010. In ovo nanoinjection of triclosan, diclofenac and carbamazepine affects embryonic development of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Chemosphere 79:966-973.

Quinn, B., Gagné, F., and Blaise, C. 2008. An investigation into the acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata. Science of The Total Environment 389:306-314.

Tierney, K.B. 2011. Swimming Performance Assessment in Fishes. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE 2572.