Key Event Overview
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AOPs Including This Key Event
|Gammarus pulex||Gammarus pulex||Strong||NCBI|
|Hydra attenuata||Hydra vulgaris||Moderate||NCBI|
Level of Biological Organization
How this Key Event works
How it is Measured or Detected
The swimming speed may be measured by the use of an aquatic tunnel, wherein the researcher controls the speed of the water flow (see Tierney, 2001), or by using video equipment to record the distance the organism swims within a period of time (e.g., Kavitha and Rao, 2007).
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
De Lange, H.J., Noordoven, W., Murk, A.J., Lürling, M., and Peeters, E.T.H.M. 2006. Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Aquatic toxicology 78:209-216.
Kavitha, P. and Venkateswara Rao, J. 2007. Oxidative stress and locomotor behaviour response as biomarkers for assessing recovery status of mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis after lethal effect of an organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 87:182-188.
Nassef, M., Kim, S.G., Seki, M., Kang, I.J., Hano, T., Shimasaki, Y., and Oshima, Y. 2010. In ovo nanoinjection of triclosan, diclofenac and carbamazepine affects embryonic development of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Chemosphere 79:966-973.
Quinn, B., Gagné, F., and Blaise, C. 2008. An investigation into the acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata. Science of The Total Environment 389:306-314.
Tierney, K.B. 2011. Swimming Performance Assessment in Fishes. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE 2572.