Key Event Overview
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AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Event Type||Essentiality|
|Oxidative Stress Leading to Hypertension||AO||[[Aop:149#Essentiality of the Key Events|]]|
|Homo sapiens||Homo sapiens||Strong||NCBI|
|Mus musculus||Mus musculus||Strong||NCBI|
|Rattus norvegicus||Rattus norvegicus||Strong||NCBI|
Level of Biological Organization
How this Key Event works
Hypertension is an important cardiovascular risk factor and considered one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (Kizhakekuttu and Widlansky, 2010). It is defined as a chronic elevation in blood pressure and is characterized by elevated systemic vascular resistance due to dysregulated vasomotor function and structural remodeling (Lee and Griendling, 2008). Although many genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development to hypertension, oxidative stress appears to be the main pathway involved in its pathogenesis. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, resulting in increased superoxide production but decreased nitric oxide (NO), a critical regulator of vascular homeostasis (Silva et al., 2012). Depletion of NO leads to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, thus promoting endothelial dysfunction, which is a hallmark of hypertension.
How it is Measured or Detected
Arterial blood pressure is commonly measured using a sphygmomanometer, which provides systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
Animal models including mouse and rat models were developed to study hypertension in humans (Leong et al., 2015).
Durand, M.J., and Gutterman, D.D. (2013). Diversity in mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in health and disease. Microcirc. N. Y. N 1994 20, 239–247.
Kizhakekuttu, T.J., and Widlansky, M.E. (2010). Natural antioxidants and hypertension: promise and challenges. Cardiovasc. Ther. 28, e20–e32.
Leong, X.-F., Ng, C.-Y., Jaarin, K., Leong, X.-F., Ng, C.-Y., and Jaarin, K. (2015). Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Hypertension and Atherosclerosis, Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Hypertension and Atherosclerosis. BioMed Res. Int. BioMed Res. Int. 2015, 2015, e528757.
Silva, B.R., Pernomian, L., and Bendhack, L.M. (2012). Contribution of oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. Front. Physiol. 3, 441.