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Relationship: 1313

Title

A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Goblet cell metaplasia leads to Increase, Mucin production

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens Moderate NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Mixed Low

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
Adults Moderate

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

Chronic mucus hypersecretion is a main feature of chronic lung diseases, and the presence of goblet cell hyperplasia or goblet cell metaplasia in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and cystic fibrosis patients has been inferred as cause for sustained mucus production (Rose and Voynow, 2006; Munkholm and Mortensen, 2014).

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help

This KER is inferred:  According to Rose and Voynow, “Secretory cell hyperplasia is a prerequisite for sustained mucus hypersecretion/mucin overproduction” (Rose and Voynow, 2006).

Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

This KER is inferred. However, that an increase in goblet cell numbers also increases mucin production is highly plausible. Studies in human cells, mice and rats demonstrate that mucin content or MUC5AC mRNA and protein expression increase in the presence of histologically confirmed goblet cell metaplasia. However, because both events are measured in parallel and causal evidence is missing, our confidence is moderate.  

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

In some cases, it appears that the authors use the terms "goblet cell hyperplasia" and "goblet cell metaplasia" interchangeably, making the evaluation of the available evidence difficult.  Because goblet cell metaplasia is also a feature of epithelial cell remodeling in the context of wound healing, its appearance can be transient. At least one study indicates that goblet cell hyperplasia is also found in healthy non-smokers (never- and former smokers), where it appears as isolated foci—as opposed to the more extensive involvement of the airway epithelium seen in e.g. COPD patients (Polosukhin et al., 2011).

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help

Unknown

Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help
Time-scale
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Unknown

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Munkholm, M., and Mortensen, J. (2014). Mucociliary clearance: pathophysiological aspects. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 34, 171-177.

Polosukhin, V.V., Cates, J.M., Lawson, W.E., Milstone, A.P., Matafonov, A.G., Massion, P.P., et al. (2011). Hypoxia‐inducible factor‐1 signalling promotes goblet cell hyperplasia in airway epithelium. J Pathol 224, 203-211.

Rose, M.C., and Voynow, J.A. (2006). Respiratory tract mucin genes and mucin glycoproteins in health and disease. Physiol Rev 86, 245-278.