API

Relationship: 378

Title

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Response, Keratinocytes leads to Activation, Dendritic Cells

Upstream event

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Response, Keratinocytes

Downstream event

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Activation, Dendritic Cells

Key Event Relationship Overview

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AOPs Referencing Relationship

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens Strong NCBI
mouse Mus musculus Strong NCBI
guinea pig Cavia porcellus Strong NCBI

Sex Applicability

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Life Stage Applicability

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How Does This Key Event Relationship Work

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Biochemical or intracellular pathways affected by the action of reactive chemicals on molecular targets are incompletely known. However, there is evidence that during the sensitisation response, haptenprotein conjugates (hereafter noted as haptens) can react with cell surface proteins and activate mitogenactivated protein kinase signalling pathways. In particular, the biochemical pathways involving extracellular signal-regulating kinases- the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and the p38 kinases have been shown to be activated upon exposure to protein-binding chemicals[1]. These pathways are of particular importance in keratinocytes and dendritic cell response to skin sensitizers.

Uptake of the hapten by keratinocytes activates multiple events, including the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the induction of cyto-protective cellular pathways. Activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 results from cleavage of inactive IL-18 precursor protein by inflammasome-associated caspase-1[2]. Sensitizers can activate the inflammasome ([3];[4]) and in so doing induce IL-18 production. Intracellular Nodlike receptors (NLR) contain sensors for a number of cellular insults. Upon activation (by a currently unknown mechanism), NLRs oligomerise form molecular complexes (i.e. inflammasomes) that are involved in the activation of inflammatory-associated caspases, including caspase-1. Inductions of intracellular levels of IL-18 exhibit responses upon exposure to sensitizers which can be used to establish potency[5].

Under the influence of fibroblast- blood endothelial- and lymph endothelial-chemokines (e.g. CCL19, CCL21) and epidermal cytokines (e.g. interleukin (IL), IL-1 α, IL-1β, IL-18, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) maturing dendritic cells migrate from the epidermis to the dermis of the skin and then to the proximal lymph nodes, where they can present the hapten-protein complex to T-cells via a major histocompatibility complex molecule ([6]; [7]).

Weight of Evidence

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Biological Plausibility

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Empirical Support for Linkage

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Include consideration of temporal concordance here

There is good agreement between the sequences of biochemical and physiological events leading to skin sensitisation (see [8]; [9]; [10]; [11]; [12]; [13]).

Uncertainties or Inconsistencies

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Uncertainties include the significance of Th1 or type 1 (IFN-γ) versus Th2 or type 2 (IL-2, IL-4, IL-13) cytokine secretion profiles [14]), and sensitisation measurements in different in vivo models. - Inconsistencies within the reported data are seen. There are differences between in vitro responses for highly similar chemicals (see [15];[16]). There are differences within and between in vivo test results for highly similar chemicals (see Annex C of the European Centre for Ecotoxicological and Toxicological Chemicals, 2010). Highly hydrophobic chemicals, which are in vivo sensitizers, are not active in aquatic-based in chemico or in vitro assays. The specific nature of the relationship between irritation and sensitisation has yet to be elucidated.

Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage

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Is it known how much change in the first event is needed to impact the second? Are there known modulators of the response-response relationships? Are there models or extrapolation approaches that help describe those relationships?

unknown

Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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While in vivo testing focuses on selected mammals including man, the key events for this AOP appear to be conserved across mammals.

References

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  1. Trompezinski S, Migdal C, Tailhardat M, Le Varlet B, Courtellemont P, Haftek M, Serres M. 2008. Charaterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 230: 397- 406.
  2. Martinon, F., Mayor, A. and Tschopp, J. 2009. The inflammasomes: guardians of the body. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 27: 229-265.
  3. Sutterwala FS, Ogura Y, Szczepanik M, Lara-Tejero M, Lichtenberger GS, Grant EP, Bertin J, Coyle AJ, Galán JE, Askenase PW, Flavell RA. 2006. Critical role for NALP3/CIAS1/Cryopyrin in innate and adaptive immunity through its regulation of caspase-1. Immunity 24: 317-327.
  4. Watanabe H, Gaide O, Pétrilli V, Martinon F, Contassot E, Roques S, Kummer JA, Tschopp J, French LE. 2007. Activation of the IL-1beta-processing inflammasome is involved in contact hypersensitivity. J. Invest. Dermatol. 127: 1956-1963.
  5. Van Och FMM, Van Loveren H, Van Wolfswinkel JC, Machielsen AJC, Vandebriel RJ. 2005. Assessment of potency of allergenic activity of low molecular weight compounds based on IL-1α and IL-18 production by a murine and human keratinocyte cell line. Toxicology 210: 95-109.
  6. Antonopoulos C, Cumberbatch M, Mee JB, Dearman RJ, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Kimber I, Groves RW. 2008. IL-18 is a key proximal mediator of contact hypersensitivity and allergeninduced Langerhans cell migration in murine epidermis. J. Leukoc. Biol. 83: 361-367.
  7. Ouwehand K, Santegoets SJAM, Bruynzeel DP, Scheper RJ, de Gruijl TD, Gibbs S. 2008. CXCL12 is essential for migration of activated Langerhans cells for epidermis to dermis. Eur. J. Immunol. 38: 3050-3059.
  8. Gerberick F, Aleksic M, Basketter D, Casati S, Karlberg AT, Kern P, Kimber I, Lepoittevin JP, Natsch A, Ovigne JM, Rovida C, Sakaguchi H and Schultz T 2008. Chemical reactivity measurement and the predictive identification of skin sensitisers. Altern. Lab. Anim.36: 215-242
  9. Karlberg AT, Bergström MA, Börje A, Luthman, K, Nilsson JL. 2008. Allergic contact dermatitis- formation, structural requirements, and reactivity of skin sensitizers. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 21: 53-69
  10. Vocanson M, Hennino A, Rozieres A, Poyet G, Nicolas JF. 2009. Effector and regulatory mechanisms in allergic contact dermatitis. Allergy 64: 1699-1714
  11. Aeby P, Ashikaga T, Bessou-Touya S, Schapky A, Geberick F, Kern P, Marrec-Fairley M, Maxwell G, Ovigne J-M, Sakaguchi H, Reisinger K, Tailhardat M, Martinozzi-Teisser S, Winkler P 2010. Identifying and characterizing chemical skin sensitizers without animal testing; Colipa’s research and methods development program. Toxicol. In Vitro 24: 1465-1473.
  12. Basketter DA and Kimber I 2010. Contact hypersensitivity. In: McQueen, CA (ed) Comparative Toxicology Vol. 5, 2nd Ed. Elsevier, Kidlington, UK, pp. 397-411.
  13. Adler S, BasketterD, Creton S, Pelkonen O, van Benthem J, Zuang V, Ejner-Andersen K, Angers- Loustau A, Aptula A, Bal-Price A, Benfenati E, Bernauer U, Bessems J, Bois FY, Boobis A, Brandon E, Bremer S, Broschard T, Casati S Coecke S Corvi R, Cronin M, Daston G, Dekant W, Felter S, Grignard E, Gundert-Remy U, Heinonen T, Kimber I, Kleinjans J, Komulainen H, Kreiling R, Kreysa J, Batista Leite S, Loizou G, Maxwell G, Mazzatorta P, Munn S, Pfuhler S, Phrakonkham P, Piersma A, Poth A, Prieto P, Repetto G, Rogiers V, Schoeters G, Schwarz M, Serafimova R, Tahti H, Testai E, van Delft J, van Loveren H, Vinken M, Worth A, Zaldivar JM. 2011. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010. Arch. Toxicol. 85: 367-485.
  14. Hopkins JE, Naisbitt DJ, Kitteringham NR, Dearman RJ, Kimber I, Park BK. 2005. Selective haptenation of cellular or extracellular proteins by chemical allergens: Association with cytokine polarization. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 18: 375-381
  15. Natsch A and Emter R. 2008. Skin sensitizers induce antioxidant response element dependent genes: Application to the in vitro testing of the sensitisation potential of chemicals. Toxicol. Sci. 102: 110-119
  16. McKim JM Jr, Keller DJ III, Gorski JR. 2010. A new in vitro method for identifying chemical sensitizers combining peptide binding with ARE/EpRE-mediated gene expression in human skin cells. Cutan. Ocul. Toxicol. 29: 171-192.