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Altered, Chromosome number leads to Increase, Aneuploid offspring
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Chemical binding to tubulin in oocytes leading to aneuploid offspring||adjacent||High||Francesco Marchetti (send email)||Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review|
Life Stage Applicability
|Adult, reproductively mature||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Development of a conceptus from a gamete containing an abnormal number of chromosomes results in an aneuploid offspring. Whether the aneuploid conceptus results in a viable offspring is dependent on the chromosome involved in the aneuploidy. Viable aneuploidies in humans include chromosomes 13, 18 and 21, and the sex chromosomes.
Evidence Supporting this KER
It is well established that in the majority of cases of human offspring with an aneuploid condition, the extra chromosome is inherited from one of the parents. In humans, it is known that aneuploidy occurs more frequently in female germ cells. It has been known for a long time that there is a strong association between increasing maternal age and increasing risk of aneuploid offspring.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
As mentioned above, it is difficult to evaluate the response-response relationship between these two KEs because the majority of aneuploid conceptuses are eliminated during pregnancy. There are a few studies that report on the frequency of aneuploidy in oocytes (KEupstream) and the frequency of aneuploidy in zygotes, only a small portion of which will result in an increase in aneuploid offspring (KEdownstream). Studies with colchicine [Mailhes et al., 1990], griseofulvin [Tiveron et al, 1992; Marchetti et al., 1992] and taxol [Mailhes et al., 199] all show that the frequencies of aneuploid oocytes and aneuploid zygotes are similar suggesting a linear relationship at least between these two events.
Chemically induced aneuploidy is occurring around the time of ovulation when the oocyte completes the first meiotic division. Fertilization generally occurs within a few hours from ovulation and thus the generation of the aneuploid conceptus follows the KEupstream by a matter of hours. The KEdownstream, that is aneuploid offspring, is determined by the duration of pregnancy in the species, weeks in the mouse, months in humans, but again, only a small portion of the aneuploid zygotes will result in a live offspring.
Known modulating factors
There are no studies that have looked at whether specific chromosomes are more prone to undergo chemically induced aneuploidy, thus, it can be assumed, that the fraction of zygotes that are aneuploid for chromosomes that are compatible with life will also show a linear relationship as that observed between aneuploid oocytes and zygotes.
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
There are no known feedbacks loops.
Domain of Applicability
This is based on evidence in humans and mice, but is broadly applicable to all eukaryotic species.
Hassold T, Hall H, Hunt P. 2007. The origin of human aneuploidy: Where we have been, where we are going. Hum Mol Genet 16: R203–R208.
Hunt PA, Hassold TJ. 2002. Sex matters in meiosis. Science 296:2181–2183.
Leland S, Nagarajan P, Polyzos A, Thomas S, Samaan G, Donnell R, Marchetti F, Venkatachalam S. 2009. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:12776-12781.
Mailhes JB, Aardema MJ, Marchetti F. 1990. Cytogenetic analysis of mouse oocytes and one-cell zygotes as a potential assay for heritable germ cell aneuploidy. Mutat Res 242:89-100.
Mailhes JB, Carabatsos MJ, Young D, London SN, Bell M, Albertini DF. 1999. Taxol-induced meiotic maturation delay, spindle defects, and aneuploidy in mouse oocytes and zygotes. Mutat Res 423:79-90.
Marchetti F, C Tiveron, B Bassani and F Pacchierotti. 1992. Griseofulvin-induced aneuploidy and meiotic delay in female mouse germ cells, II. Cytogenetic analysis of one-cell zygotes. Mutat Res 266:151-162.
Nagaoka SI, Hassold TJ, Hunt PA. 2012. Human aneuploidy: Mechanisms and new insights into an age-old problem. Nat Rev Genet 13:493–504.
Tiveron C, F Marchetti, B Bassani and F Pacchierotti. 1992. Griseofulvin-induced aneuploidy and meiotic delay in female mouse germ cells, I. Cytogenetic analysis of metaphase II oocytes. Mutat Res 266:143-150.
Webster A, Schuh M. 2017. Mechanisms of aneuploidy in human eggs. Trends Cell Biol 27:55-68.