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Increased goblet cell proliferation leads to Goblet cell hyperplasia
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|EGFR Activation Leading to Decreased Lung Function||adjacent||High||Low||Karsta Luettich (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
The term ‘hyperplasia’ refers to an increase in a tissue or organ that is linked to an increase in cell number or cell size. Therefore, increasing number of airway goblet cells that arise from proliferation can be considered a root cause of goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH).
Evidence Supporting this KER
Current and former smokers frequently exhibit goblet cell hyperplasia of the proximal airways (Saetta et al., 2000; Innes et al., 2006). While there is evidence that increased goblet cell proliferation may be the underlying cause of GCH (Silva and Bercik, 2012), the key players are still largely unexplored.
Hyperplasia is increased cell production in a normal tissue or organ, therefore, goblet cell hyperplasia is an increase in the number of goblet cells. Because this KER is inferred, we consider confidence in its biological plausibility low.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Neither the timing nor the exact molecular sequence of this KER are known at this time.
This KER is inferred.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Goblet cell proliferation and goblet cell hyperplasia were reported in human, mouse and rat studies (Casalino-Matsuda et al., 2006; Ichinose et al., 2006; Camateros et al., 2007; Shatos et al., 2003; Ma et al., 2005).
Camateros, P., Tamaoka, M., Hassan, M., Marino, R., Moisan, J., Marion, D., Guiot, M.-C., Martin, J.G., and Radzioch, D. (2007). Chronic asthma-induced airway remodeling is prevented by toll-like receptor-7/8 ligand S28463. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175, 1241–1249.
Casalino-Matsuda, S.M., Monzon, M.E., Conner, G.E., Salathe, M., and Forteza, R.M. (2004). Role of hyaluronan and reactive oxygen species in tissue kallikrein-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor activation in human airways. J Biol Chem 279, 21606-21616.
Harkema, J., and Hotchkiss, J. (1993). Ozone- and endotoxin-induced mucous cell metaplasias in rat airway epithelium: novel animal models to study toxicant-induced epithelial transformation in airways. Toxicol Lett 68, 251–263.
Innes, A.L., Woodruff, P.G., Ferrando, R.E., Donnelly, S., Dolganov, G.M., Lazarus, S.C., and Fahy, J.V. (2006). Epithelial mucin stores are increased in the large airways of smokers with airflow obstruction. Chest 130, 1102-1108.
Ma, R., Wang, Y., Cheng, G., Zhang, H., Wan, H., and Huang, S. (2005). MUC5AC expression up-regulation goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chin Med Sci J 20, 181–184.
Saetta, M., Turato, G., Baraldo, S., Zanin, A., Braccioni, F., Mapp, C., Maestrelli, P., Cavallesco, G., Papi, A., and Fabbri, L. (2000). Goblet cell hyperplasia and epithelial inflammation in peripheral airways of smokers with both symptoms of chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow limitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161, 1016–1021.
Shatos, M.A., Gu, J., Hodges, R.R., Lashkari, K., and Dartt, D.A. (2008). ERK/p44p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates EGF-stimulated proliferation of conjunctival goblet cells in culture. Invest Ophthalm & Vis Sci 49, 3351-3359.
Silva, M.A., and Bercik, P. (2012). Macrophages are related to goblet cell hyperplasia and induce MUC5B but not MUC5AC in human bronchus epithelial cells. Lab Invest 92, 937-948.
Taniguchi, K., Yamamoto, S., Aoki, S., Toda, S., Izuhara, K., and Hamasaki, Y. (2011). Epigen is induced during the interleukin-13–stimulated cell proliferation in murine primary airway epithelial cells. Exp Lung Res 37, 461-470.
Tesfaigzi, Y., Fischer, M.J., Martin, A.J., and Seagrave, J. (2000). Bcl-2 in LPS- and allergen-induced hyperplastic mucous cells in airway epithelia of Brown Norway rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 279, L1210-L1217.