API XML

Aop: 259

AOP Title

?


Sensitization induction of the intestinal tract by food proteins

Short name:

?

impARAS

Graphical Representation

?

Click to download graphical representation template

W1siziisijiwmtgvmdivmdivmnbnexfpntrjd19dyxb0dxjllkpqryjdlfsiccisinrodw1iiiwintaweduwmcjdxq?sha=4b1564d44a780214

Authors

?


Jolanda H M van Bilsen and Kitty C M Verhoeckx, TNO, Zeist, the Netherlands

Edyta Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, University of Warmia and Mazury, Osztyn, Poland

Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo and Elena Molina, Instituto  de  Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentaci ón, Madrid, Spain

Linette E M Willemsen, Joost J Smit and Raymond Pieters, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands

Celia M Antunes, University of Evora, Evora, Portugal

Barbara Wróblewska, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland

Harry J Wichers, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands

Edward F Knol, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Gregory S Ladics, DuPont Company, Newark, United States

Sandra Denery-Papin and Colette Larré, INRA, Nantes, France

Yvonne M Vissers, Nestlé Ltd., Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland

Simona L Bavaro, Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, Bari, Italy

Erwin L Roggen, 3Rs Managing and Consulting ApS, Lyngby, Denmark

Point of Contact

?


Erwin Roggen   (email point of contact)

Contributors

?


  • Erwin Roggen
  • Jolanda van Bilsen
  • Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo
  • Linette Willemsen
  • Raymond Pieters

Status

?

Author status OECD status OECD project SAAOP status
Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite


This AOP was last modified on February 02, 2018 09:22

?

Revision dates for related pages

Page Revision Date/Time

Abstract

?


The introduction of whole new foods in a population may lead to sensitization and food allergy. This constitutes a potential public health problem and a challenge to risk assessors and managers as the existing understanding of the pathophysiological processes and the currently available biological tools for prediction of the risk for food allergy development and the severity of the reaction are not sufficient.

There is a substantial body of in vivo and in vitro data describing molecular and cellular events potentially involved in food sensitization. However, these events have not been organized in a sequence of related events that is plausible to result in sensitization, and useful to challenge current hypotheses.

The aim of this AOP was to collect and structure the current mechanistic understanding of sensitization induction to food proteins by applying the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP).

The proposed AOP for food sensitization is based on information on molecular and cellular mechanisms and pathways evidenced to be involved in sensitization by food and food proteins and uses the AOPs for chemical skin sensitization and respiratory sensitization induction as templates. available mechanistic data on protein respiratory sensitization were included to fill out gaps in the understanding of how proteins may affect cells, cell-cell interactions and tissue homeostasis. Analysis revealed several key events (KE) and biomarkers that may have potential use in testing and assessment of proteins for their sensitizing potential.

The application of the AOP concept to structure mechanistic in vivo and in vitro knowledge has made it possible to identify methods, each addressing a specific KE, that provide information about the food allergenic potential of new proteins. When applied in the context of an integrated strategy these methods may reduce, if not replace, current animal testing approaches.


Background (optional)

?


Consumers are exposed to increasing numbers of novel proteins or protein-containing products (e.g. insect burgers or proteins derived from bacteria grown on waste streams). These sustainable protein-rich food products are to solve the food insecurity problem but require a comprehensive risk assessment complying with the European ‘Novel Food’ law.

Additional knowledge and biological tools are needed to support the prediction of the risk for food allergy development and the potential severity of the reaction. This constitutes a major public health problem and a challenge to risk assessors and managers.

Like other allergies, food allergy has a non-symptomatic sensitization phase and a symptomatic elicitation phase. Food-associated adverse reactions can be immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated, non-IgE mediated or both. This AOP focusses on the current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms driving sensitization induction resulting in IgE-mediated allergy.

The mode of action (MOA) of sensitization and IgE mediated allergy to food proteins in predisposed individuals is poorly understood. It is recognized that food processing, oral uptake and digestion affect the characteristics of food and food proteins. Thus, acquiring a good understanding of the MOA requires well-characterized food and food protein samples for in vivo challenges in animals or preferentially humans. Such samples are now made available by the NFOGEST Cost Action.

There is a substantial body of in vivo and in vitro data describing molecular and cellular events potentially involved in food sensitization. However, these events have not been organized in a sequence of related events that is plausible to result in sensitization, and useful to challenge current hypotheses.

The aim of this AOP is to collect and structure the current mechanistic understanding of sensitization

induction to food proteins.


Summary of the AOP

?


Events: Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)

?

Key Events (KE)

?

Adverse Outcomes (AO)

?

Relationships Between Two Key Events
(Including MIEs and AOs)

?

Network View

?

 

Stressors

?

Life Stage Applicability

?

Taxonomic Applicability

?

Sex Applicability

?

Overall Assessment of the AOP

?



Domain of Applicability

?


Essentiality of the Key Events

?


Evidence Assessment

?


Quantitative Understanding

?


Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)

?



References

?