API

Event: 625

Key Event Title

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Increased, muscular waves in foot

Short name

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Increased, muscular waves in foot

Key Event Component

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Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Level of Biological Organization

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Biological Organization
Organ


Organ term

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Organ term
muscle of pes


Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Helix lucorum Helix lucorum NCBI
Melibe leonine Melibe leonine NCBI

Life Stages

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Sex Applicability

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How This Key Event Works

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Serotonin stimulates locomotion and accelerates crawling in gastropods by pedal wave (step) elongation. Results by Pavlova 2001 indicate that dopamine controls snail speed by regulating sole length (amplitude of contraction of the muscle cells involved in pedal waves) and negatively impacts speed; serotonin positively regulates speed and determines the basic step length. For other mollusks that also use pedal waves (muscular waves), the mechanism of regulation by the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine are likely conserved. Mackey and Carew (1983) found the primary target of 5-HT (serotonin)-controlled movement in aplysia (sea snail) was the pedal and pleural ganglia. In the sea snail, Satterlie and Norekian (1996) identified a symmetrical cluster of pedal serotonergic neurons serves involved in wing spread and cerebral cells which control the activation of the pedal serotonergic neurons.


How It Is Measured or Detected

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In gastropods, muscular wave action and locomotion may be monitored by video or (or photographs)of the snail crawling up a vertical, transparent wall. Waves and interwaves are visible as alternating dark and light transverse bands (Pavlova, 2011.


Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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References

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