API

Event: 857

Key Event Title

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Binding as antagonist, Antagonist binding to PPARalpha ligand binding domain

Short name

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Binding as antagonist, Antagonist binding to PPARalpha ligand binding domain

Key Event Component

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Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Name
GW6471

Level of Biological Organization

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Biological Organization
Molecular

Cell term

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Organ term

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens Strong NCBI
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strong NCBI

Life Stages

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Sex Applicability

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How This Key Event Works

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The transcription co-repressors, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) have been observed to compete with transcriptional co-activators for binding to nuclear receptors (including PPARα) thus suppressing basal transcriptional activity (Nagy et al 1999, Xu et al 2002). Binding motifs for the co-repressors and co-activators to PPARα have been observed to be conserved, however the co-repressor affects the confirmation of the AF-2 helix to block the ligand binding domain, as demonstrated in x-ray crystallography results presented in Xu et al (2002). PPARα agonists and antagonists have been developed to selectively enhance co-activator or co-repressor binding, respectively (Xu et al 2001, Xu et al 2002). Regarding the present MIE, PPARα antagonists such as GW6471 stabilize the binding of co-repressors to the PPARα signaling complex suppressing nuclear signaling and thus downstream transcription of PPARα-regulated genes.

Wilbanks et al. (2014) and Gust et al (2015) demonstrated inhibition of human PPARα nuclear signaling in in vitro nuclear signaling bioassays in response to 2,4-dinitrotoluene(2,4-DNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT), respectively. However, it is unknown if this response was manifested through the co-repressor binding stabilization that was identified in (Xu et al 2002).


How It Is Measured or Detected

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Methods that have been previously reviewed and approved by a recognized authority should be included in the Overview section above. All other methods, including those well established in the published literature, should be described here. Consider the following criteria when describing each method: 1. Is the assay fit for purpose? 2. Is the assay directly or indirectly (i.e. a surrogate) related to a key event relevant to the final adverse effect in question? 3. Is the assay repeatable? 4. Is the assay reproducible?

In Xu et al (2002), X-ray crystallography was used to characterize the suppressed PPARα signaling complex (PPARα / GW6471 / SMRT) and was compared against the activated PPARα complex which included binding of PPARα with the agonist GW409544 and the co-activator, steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1).


Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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The fundamental mechanics for co-repressor antagonism of nuclear signaling by SMRT and N-CoR have been observed to be equivalent when comparing humans and yeast (Nagy et al 1999). Therefore, the taxonomic applicability should be broad across eukaryotes.


Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor



GW6471

In Xu et al (2002), X-ray crystallography was used to characterize the suppressed PPARα signaling complex (PPARα / GW6471 / SMRT) and was compared against the activated PPARα complex which included binding of PPARα with the agonist GW409544 and the co-activator, steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1). 


References

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Gust KA, Nanduri B, Rawat A, Wilbanks MS, Ang CY, Johnson DR, Pendarvis K, Chen X, Quinn Jr. MJ, Johnson MS, Burgess SC, Perkins EJ. 2015. Systems Toxicology Identifies Mechanistic Impacts of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) Exposure in Northern Bobwhite. BMC Genomics. 16:587 doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1798-4

Nagy L, Kao H-Y, Love JD, Li C, Banayo E, Gooch JT, Krishna V, Chatterjee K, Evans RM, Schwabe JWR: Mechanism of corepressor binding and release from nuclear hormone receptors. Genes Dev 1999, 13(24):3209-3216.

Wilbanks, M., Gust, K.A., Atwa, S., Sunesara, I., Johnson, D., Ang, C.Y., Meyer., S.A., and Perkins, E.J. 2014. Validation of a genomics-based hypothetical adverse outcome pathway: 2,4-dinitrotoluene perturbs PPAR signaling thus impairing energy metabolism and exercise endurance. Toxicological Sciences. 141(1):44-58.

Xu HE, Lambert MH, Montana VG, Plunket KD, Moore LB, Collins JL, Oplinger JA, Kliewer SA, Gampe RT, McKee DD et al: Structural determinants of ligand binding selectivity between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2001, 98(24):13919-13924.

Xu HE, Stanley TB, Montana VG, Lambert MH, Shearer BG, Cobb JE, McKee DD, Galardi CM, Plunket KD, Nolte RT et al: Structural basis for antagonist-mediated recruitment of nuclear co-repressors by PPAR[alpha]. Nature 2002, 415(6873):813-817.