Upstream eventReduced, Anterior swim bladder inflation
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Directness||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
|Deiodinase 2 inhibition leading to reduced young of year survival via posterior swim bladder inflation||directly leads to|
|Deiodinase 2 inhibition leading to reduced young of year survival via anterior swim bladder inflation||directly leads to|
|Deiodinase 1 inhibition leading to reduced young of year survival via posterior swim bladder inflation||directly leads to|
|Deiodinase 1 inhibition leading to reduced young of year survival via anterior swim bladder inflation||directly leads to|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to reduced young of year survival via anterior swim bladder inflation||directly leads to|
|fathead minnow||Pimephales promelas||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
How Does This Key Event Relationship Work
Apart from a role in buoyancy that is not completely understood with regard to the relation to the function of the posterior chamber, the anterior chamber of the swim bladder of many fish species has an additional role in the production and/or detection of sound (Popper et al., 1974; Bang et al., 2002). Several fish families have Weberian ossicles (tiny bones, also called the Weberian apparatus), connecting the anterior chamber to the inner ear resulting in an amplification of sound waves. Therefore it is plausible to assume that if the anterior chamber does not inflate or inflates to a reduced size, the connection to the Weberian ossicles is lost and hearing is impaired.
Weight of Evidence
It is plausible to assume that if the anterior chamber does not inflate or inflates to a reduced size, the connection to the Weberian ossicles is lost and hearing is impaired.
Empirical Support for Linkage
• Bang et al. (2002) developed a behavioural screening method for detecting hearing defects in zebrafish. In this method they measure a rapid escape reflex in response to a loud sound. They tested 6500 wildtype fish and found that 1% of them had a hearing deficit. When investigating the morphology of the auditory system of these non-responders, they found that nearly all of them showed abnormalities in the swim bladder or Weberian ossicles. Specifically, in 36% of the cases there was only one swim bladder chamber and it was clear that the swim bladder did not touch the first Weberian ossicle (the tripus). Another 36% showed abnormalities in the vertebrae associated with the Weberian ossicles. Fish with normal acoustically mediated startle responses showed no obvious malformations of the swim bladder or Weberian ossicles.
• Ladich and Wysocki (2003) removed the Weberian ossicle directly associated with the anterior chamber (the tripod) in goldfish and showed a frequency-dependent increase of the threshold for perceiving sound.
• Different families of catfish have large variation in the morphology of the swim bladder as well as in the number and size of Weberian ossicles. Lechner and Ladich (2008) showed that over a large range of catfish families larger swim bladders and larger as well as higher numbers of ossicles were related to better hearing abilities.
• Yan et al. (2000) experimentally deflated the swim bladder of goldfish and found that this resulted in a frequency-dependent increase of the threshold for perceiving sound.
Include consideration of temporal concordance here
Uncertainties or Inconsistencies
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability
Within fish we can distinguish between hearing generalists (non-specialists) such as cichlids, salmonids, sunfishes and toadfishes and hearing specialists which have accessory hearing structures (specializations) such as the Weberian apparatus in otophysines, supbrabranchial chambers in labyrinth fish and auditory bullae in mormyrids (Ladich and Wysocki, 2003; Ladich and Fay, 2013). In fish that do not possess an anterior chamber with a function in hearing this KER is not applicable.
Bang, P.I., Yelick, P.C., Malicki, J.J., Sewell, W.F., 2002. High-throughput behavioral screening method for detecting auditory response defects in zebrafish. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 118, 177-187.
Ladich, F., Fay, R.R., 2013. Auditory evoked potential audiometry in fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 23, 317-364.
Ladich, F., Wysocki, L.E., 2003. How does tripus extirpation affect auditory sensitivity in goldfish? Hearing Research 182, 119-129.
Lechner, W., Ladich, F., 2008. Size matters: Diversity in swimbladders and Weberian ossicles affects hearing in catfishes. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 1681-1689.
Popper, A.N., 1974. Response of swim bladder of goldfish (Carassius auratus) to acoustic stimuli. Journal of Experimental Biology 60, 295-304.
Yan, H.Y., Fine, M.L., Horn, N.S., Colon, W.E., 2000. Variability in the role of the gasbladder in fish audition. Journal of Comparative Physiology a-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 186, 435-445.