Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
|swim bladder inflation||anterior chamber swim bladder||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|DIO2i anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|DIO1i anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|TPOi anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent|
|fathead minnow||Pimephales promelas||High||NCBI|
Key Event Description
The swim bladder of bony fish is evolutionary homologous to the lung (Zheng et al., 2011). The teleost swim bladder is a gas-filled structure that consists of two chambers, the posterior and anterior chamber. In zebrafish, the posterior chamber inflates around 96 h post fertilization (hpf) which is 2 days post hatch, and the anterior chamber inflates around 21 dpf. In fathead minnow, the posterior and anterior chamber inflate around 6 and 14 dpf respectively. Inflation of the anterior swim bladder chamber is part of the larval-to-juvenile transition in fish, together with the development of adult fins and fin rays, ossification of the axial skeleton, formation of an adult pigmentation pattern, scale formation, maturation and remodeling of organs including the lateral line, nervous system, gut and kidneys (McMenamin and Parichy, 2013).
The anterior chamber is formed by evagination from the cranial end of the posterior chamber (Robertson et al., 2007). Dumbarton et al. (2010) showed that the anterior chamber of zebrafish has particularly closely packed and highly organized bundles of muscle fibres, suggesting that contraction of these muscles would reduce swim bladder volume. While it had previously been suggested that the posterior chamber had a more important role as a hydrostatic organ, this implies high importance of the anterior chamber for buoyancy. The anterior chamber has an additional role in hearing (Bang et al., 2002). Weberian ossicles (the Weberian apparatus) connect the anterior chamber to the inner ear resulting in an amplification of sound waves. Reduced inflation of the anterior chamber may manifest itself as either a complete failure to inflate the chamber or reduced size of the chamber. Reduced size is often associated with a deviating morphology.
How It Is Measured or Detected
In several fish species, inflation of the anterior chamber can be observed using a stereomicroscope because the larvae are still transparent during the larval stage. This is for example true for zebrafish and fathead minnow. Anterior chamber size can then be measured based on photographs with a calibrator.
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: Teleost fish can be divided in two groups according to swim bladder morphology: physoclistous (e.g., yellow perch) and physostomus (e.g., zebrafish and fathead minnow). Physostomus fish retain a duct between the digestive tract and the swim bladder during adulthood allowing them to gulp air at the surface to fill the swim bladder. In contrast, in physoclistous fish, once initial inflation by gulping atmospheric air at the water surface has occurred, the swim bladder is closed off from the digestive tract and swim bladder volume is regulated by gas secretion into the swim bladder (Woolley and Qin, 2010). The evidence for impaired inflation of the anterior chamber of the swim bladder currently comes from work on zebrafish and fathead minnow (Stinckens et al., 2016; Nelson et al., 2016; Cavallin et al., 2017; Godfrey et al., 2017; Stinckens et al., 2020).
Life stage: The anterior chamber inflates during a specific developmental time frame. In zebrafish, the anterior chamber inflates around 21 days post fertilization (dpf) which is during the larval stage. In the fathead minnow, the anterior chamber inflates around 14 dpf, also during the larval stage. Therefore this KE is only applicable to the larval life stage.
Sex: Zebrafish are undifferentiated gonochorists since both sexes initially develop an immature ovary (Maack and Segner, 2003). Immature ovary development progresses until approximately the onset of the third week. Later, in female fish immature ovaries continue to develop further, while male fish undergo transformation of ovaries into testes. Final transformation into testes varies among male individuals, however finishes usually around 6 weeks post fertilization. Since the anterior chamber inflates around 21 days post fertilization, sex differences are expected to play a minor role.
- Bang, P.I., Yelick, P.C., Malicko, J.J., Sewell, W.F. 2002. High-throughput behavioral screening method for detecting auditory response defects in zebrafish. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 118, 177-187.
- Cavallin, J.E., Ankley, G.T., Blackwell, B.R., Blanksma, C.A., Fay, K.A., Jensen, K.M., Kahl, M.D., Knapen, D., Kosian, P.A., Poole, S.T., Randolph, E.C., Schroeder, A.L., Vergauwen, L., Villeneuve, D.L., 2017. Impaired swim bladder inflation in early life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36, 2942-2952.
- Dumbarton, T.C., Stoyek, M., Croll, R.P., Smith, F.M., 2010. Adrenergic control of swimbladder deflation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). J. Exp. Biol. 213,2536–2546, http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.039792.
- Godfrey, A., Hooser, B., Abdelmoneim, A., Horzmann, K.A., Freemanc, J.L., Sepulveda, M.S., 2017. Thyroid disrupting effects of halogenated and next generation chemicals on the swim bladder development of zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology 193, 228-235.
- McMenamin, S.K., Parichy, D.M., 2013. Metamorphosis in Teleosts. Animal Metamorphosis 103, 127-165.
- Nelson KR, Schroeder AL, Ankley GT, Blackwell BR, Blanksma C, Degitz SJ, Flynn KM, Jensen KM, Johnson RD, Kahl MD, Knapen D, Kosian PA, Milsk RY, Randolph EC, Saari T, Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Villeneuve DL. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole – Part I: fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology 173: 192-203.
- Roberston, G.N., McGee, C.A.S., Dumbarton, T.C., Croll, R.P., Smith, F.M., 2007. Development of the swim bladder and its innervation in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. J. Morphol. 268, 967–985, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.
- Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Schroeder, A., Maho, W., Blackwell, B., Witters, H., Blust, R., Ankley, G., Covaci, A., Villeneuve, D., Knapen, D., 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part II: Zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology 173, 204-217.
- Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Blackwell, B.R., Anldey, G.T., Villeneuve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2020. Effect of Thyroperoxidase and Deiodinase Inhibition on Anterior Swim Bladder Inflation in the Zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology 54, 6213-6223.
- Woolley, L.D., Qin, J.G., 2010. Swimbladder inflation and its implication to the culture of marine finfish larvae. Reviews in Aquaculture 2, 181-190.
- Zheng, W., Wang, Z., Collins, J.E., Andrews, R.M., Stemple, D., Gong, Z. 2011. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicate molecular homology of zebrafish swim bladder and mammalian lung. PLoS One 6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/