API

Relationship: 1036

Title

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Insufficiency, Vascular leads to Increased, Developmental Defects

Upstream event

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Insufficiency, Vascular

Downstream event

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Increased, Developmental Defects

Key Event Relationship Overview

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AOPs Referencing Relationship

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AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding
Disruption of VEGFR Signaling Leading to Developmental Defects non-adjacent High Moderate

Taxonomic Applicability

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Sex Applicability

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Life Stage Applicability

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Key Event Relationship Description

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Evidence Supporting this KER

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Biological Plausibility

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Empirical Evidence

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Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), in particular the VEGF165 splice variant, plays a key role in the regulation of angiogenesis during early embryogenesis. This is evidenced by immature blood vessel formation and embryonic lethality in mutant mouse embryos heterozygous for the Vegfa-null allele [Ferrara et al. 1996; Carmellet et al. 1996]. Targeted disruption of VEGFR1 or VEGFR2 is early embryonic lethal; however, the vascular phenotypes differ in either case. VEGFR1-mutant (Flt1-null) embryos display excessive endothelial cell growth leading to disorganization of the vascular network [Fong et al. 1995] whereas VEGFR2-mutant (Flk1-null) embryos die from a lack blood vessel network formation [Shalaby et al. 1995].

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies

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Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage

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Response-response Relationship

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Time-scale

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Known modulating factors

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Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER

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Domain of Applicability

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References

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Gold NB, Westgate MN, Holmes LB. Anatomic and etiological classification of congenital limb deficiencies. American journal of medical genetics Part A. 2011 Jun;155A(6):1225-35. PubMed PMID: 21557466.

Husain T, Langlois PH, Sever LE, Gambello MJ. Descriptive epidemiologic features shared by birth defects thought to be related to vascular disruption in Texas, 1996-2002. Birth defects research Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. 2008 Jun;82(6):435-40. PubMed PMID: 18383510.

Kleinstreuer NC, Judson RS, Reif DM, Sipes NS, Singh AV, Chandler KJ, et al. Environmental impact on vascular development predicted by high-throughput screening. Environmental health perspectives. 2011 Nov;119(11):1596-603. PubMed PMID: 21788198. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3226499.

Knudsen TB, Kleinstreuer NC. Disruption of embryonic vascular development in predictive toxicology. Birth defects research Part C, Embryo today : reviews. 2011 Dec;93(4):312-23. PubMed PMID: 22271680.

Therapontos C, Erskine L, Gardner ER, Figg WD, Vargesson N. Thalidomide induces limb defects by preventing angiogenic outgrowth during early limb formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2009 May 26;106(21):8573-8. PubMed PMID: 19433787. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2688998.

van Gelder MM, van Rooij IA, Miller RK, Zielhuis GA, de Jong-van den Berg LT, Roeleveld N. Teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs. Human reproduction update. 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):378-94. PubMed PMID: 20061329.