API

Relationship: 125

Title

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Impairment, Endothelial network leads to Insufficiency, Vascular

Upstream event

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Impairment, Endothelial network

Downstream event

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Insufficiency, Vascular

Key Event Relationship Overview

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AOPs Referencing Relationship

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AOP Name Directness Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding
Disruption of VEGFR Signaling Leading to Developmental Defects indirectly leads to Moderate Weak

Taxonomic Applicability

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Sex Applicability

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Life Stage Applicability

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How Does This Key Event Relationship Work

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In utero vascular disruptions are thought to be associated with a variety of developmental defects [Husain et al. 2008]. Vascular disruption was identified as one of 6 teratogenic mechanisms linked with medications [van Gelder et al. 2010].

Weight of Evidence

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Biological Plausibility

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In humans, the most common apparent cause of limb deficiencies was found to be vascular disruption defects [Gold et al. 2011]. Many genetic and environmental factors alter molecular pathways regulating angiogenesis [Knudsen and Kleinstreuer, 2011].

Empirical Support for Linkage

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Susceptibility to Thalidomide linked to the disruption of immature angiogenic network at time of exposure [Therapontos et al. 2009]. Predicted vascular disrupting chemicals in ToxCast correlate with developmental toxicity [Kleinstreuer et al. 2011].

Uncertainties or Inconsistencies

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Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage

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Quantitative understanding of the linkage is not well established for mammalian systems; however, a clear concentration- and time-dependent relationship has been demonstrated in transgenic zebrafish embryos exposed to a VEGFR2 inhibitor (Vatalanib). Quantitative effects on angiogenesis forshadowed, both in concentration and time, the morphological effects on larva and this extended even to survival curves at 30 days post-hatching. [Tal et al. 2014].

Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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References

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Gold NB, Westgate MN, Holmes LB. Anatomic and etiological classification of congenital limb deficiencies. American journal of medical genetics Part A. 2011 Jun;155A(6):1225-35. PubMed PMID: 21557466.

Husain T, Langlois PH, Sever LE, Gambello MJ. Descriptive epidemiologic features shared by birth defects thought to be related to vascular disruption in Texas, 1996-2002. Birth defects research Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. 2008 Jun;82(6):435-40. PubMed PMID: 18383510.

Kleinstreuer NC, Judson RS, Reif DM, Sipes NS, Singh AV, Chandler KJ, et al. Environmental impact on vascular development predicted by high-throughput screening. Environmental health perspectives. 2011 Nov;119(11):1596-603. PubMed PMID: 21788198. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3226499.

Knudsen TB, Kleinstreuer NC. Disruption of embryonic vascular development in predictive toxicology. Birth defects research Part C, Embryo today : reviews. 2011 Dec;93(4):312-23. PubMed PMID: 22271680.

Tal TL, McCollum CW, Harris PS, Olin J, Kleinstreuer N, Wood CE, Hans C, Shah S, Merchant FA, Bondesson M, Knudsen TB, Padilla S and Hemmer MJ. Immediate and long-term consequences of vascular toxicity during zebrafish development. Reproductive Toxicology. 2014;48:51-61.

Therapontos C, Erskine L, Gardner ER, Figg WD, Vargesson N. Thalidomide induces limb defects by preventing angiogenic outgrowth during early limb formation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2009 May 26;106(21):8573-8. PubMed PMID: 19433787. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2688998.

van Gelder MM, van Rooij IA, Miller RK, Zielhuis GA, de Jong-van den Berg LT, Roeleveld N. Teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs. Human reproduction update. 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):378-94. PubMed PMID: 20061329.