In this section authors are encouraged to cite specific evidence that supports the idea that a change in the upstream KE (KEupstream) will lead to, or is associated with, a subsequent change in the downstream KE (KEdownstream), assuming the perturbation of KEupstream is sufficient. Given the likelihood that new empirical support will be developed over time, particularly as various AOPs are tested and applied, it is most practical to provide empirical support in the form of bulleted lists or tables that include a short description of the nature of the empirical support along with the corresponding reference(s).In particular, it is useful to cite evidence showing that stressors that perturb KEupstream also perturb KEdownstream. Because this section of the KER description cites evidence from specific studies, it is also helpful to provide as much detail about the toxicological and biological context in which the measurements were made, as is feasible, including the stressor(s) tested, the effective doses at each KE, etc. While the KER itself is not intended to be stressor-specific, those details can aid the overall assessment of the individual AOPs that include that KER. These details also help inform the question of consistency of supporting data, consistency across different biological contexts for which the KER is relevant, and the applicability domain of the KER. However, authors are cautioned that this evidence should focus on data that only relate KEupstream to KEdownstream, and should avoid reference to other KEs, KERs and AOPs as much as possible in order to maintain modularity of the KER. Please see pages 40-41 of the User Handbook for more information.
The basic biology of neuronal action potentials is outside the scope of this review, but is widely available in textbooks and online educational resources.