Upstream eventSuppression, IL-2 and IL-4 production
Impairment, T-cell dependent antibody response
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
|Inhibition of Calcineurin Activity Leading to Impaired T-Cell Dependent Antibody Response||adjacent||High||High|
|Homo sapiens||Homo sapiens||High||NCBI|
|Mus musculus||Mus musculus||High||NCBI|
|cynomolgus monkey||Macaca fascicularis||High||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 are produced and secreted by helper T cells and play important roles in the development of T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR), both of which induces/enhances T cell dependent antibody production. IL-4 affects maturation and class switching of B cells as well as proliferation, IL-2 promotes differentiation of B cells through IL-2 receptors and stimulates the activated T cell into T cell called Th2 cell. Therefore, suppressed production of IL-2 and IL-4 impairs T cell dependent antibody production (Alberts et al. 2008).
T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells are involved in inducing and developing of TDAR. Thus, changes in any of these immune cell populations can influence TDAR
T cell-derived cytokines play important roles in the development of TDAR. Among them, IL-2 promotes proliferation of B cells, and IL-4 affects maturation and class switching of B cells as well as proliferation, both of which induces/enhances T cell dependent antibody production.
Thus, suppressing the production of IL-2, IL-4, and other cytokines in T cells reduces stimulation of B cells including proliferation, activation, and class switching, and leading to impairment of TDAR. Therefore, suppressing the production of these B-cell-related cytokines appears to be the main factor in impairment of TDAR by inhibitors of T-cell–dependent-antibody production.
Evidence Supporting this KER
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is known one of the calcineurin inhibitiors. CsA-treatment is reported to suppresses the productions of IL-2 and IL-4 and result in the reduction of the productions of antigen-specific IgM and IgG in cynomolgus monkeys (Gaida K. 2015).
It is established that IL-2 stimulates B cells to proliferate through the surface IL-2 receptors and that IL-4 stimulates B cells to proliferate, to induce class switch, and to differentiate into plasma and memory cells.
Dupilumab is known as anti-IL-4/13 receptor (IL-4/13R) antibody. Dupilumab (Dupixent) reduces productions of immunoglobulin (Ig) E and antigen specific IgG1 in mice (Sanofi K.K. 2018). It suggests that the blocking of IL-4 signaling by anti-IL-4/13R antibody results in the decrease in T cell dependent antibody production.
Th2 cell produces cytokines including IL-4. Suplatast tosilate (IPD) is known as an inhibitor of the production of IL-4 and IL-5 from Th2 cells and reduces the production of antigen specific IgE in human cell culture and mice (Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013). These findings suggests that the reduction of IL-4 production by the inhibitor of Th2 cell cytokines results in reduced production of IgE and/or IgG1 through inhibitions of maturation, proliferation and class switching of B cells.
IL-2 binds to IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) and acts on T cell. CD25 is one of IL-2R. Basiliximab (Simulect) is known as anti-CD25 antibody. Basiliximab binds to IL-2R and blocks IL-2 signaling. Clinical transplantation study of basiliximab reveals decreases in rejections. On the other hand, basiliximab inhibits the activation of antigen specific T cells (Novartis Pharma 2016). They suggest that the blocking of IL-2 signaling by anti-IL-2R antibody results in decreased rejection through the inhibition of the activation of antigen specific T cell with reduced antibody production.
FK506 and CsA suppress mRNA expression levels of cytokines in T cells including IL-2 and IL-4 that stimulate proliferation of B cells as well as B cell activation and class switching (Heidt et al, 2010).
Several in vivo studies in rodents showed decreased TDAR by the treatment of FK506 (Kino et al. 1987b, Ulrich et al. 2004). In in vitro tests examining antibody production in blood samples obtained from blood-bank donors, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) treated with FK506 and CsA suppressed the production of IgM and IgG antibodies to T-cell dependent antigens (Heidt et al, 2009).
T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells are involved in inducing and developing of TDAR. Thus, changes in any of these immune cell populations can influence TDAR.
However, as for the suppression of humoral immunity induced by the inhibition of calcineurin (CN) phosphatase activity, calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) do not affect B cells directly but rather indirectly through T cells. That is, FK506 and CsA are capable of inhibiting immunoglobulin production when B cells are cultured with non-pre-activated T cells, but FK506 and CsA fail to inhibit immunoglobulin levels when pre-activated T cells are used to stimulate B cells. Hence, the inhibition of B cell response by FK506 and CsA appears due solely to inhibition of T helper cells (Heidt et al, 2010).
Therefore, it is concluded that decreased amounts of IL-2 and IL-4 secreted from helper T cells is the main factor for suppression of TDAR induced by CN phosphatase inhibition.
Empirical support of the suppression, IL-2 and IL-4 production leads to impairment, T-cell dependent antibody response is strong.
- Cynomolgus monkeys treated wth CsA at 50 mg/kg BID for 24 days suppression of IL-2, IL-4 and sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-specific IgM and IgG (Gaida K. 2015).
- In the allergen-induced pneumonia model in mice, dupilumab (anti-IL-4/13R antibody) reduced productions of IgE and antigen specific IgG1 at 25 mg/kg of twice weekly subcutaneous administration for 4weeks (Sanofi K.K. 2018).
- In mice immunized with dinitrophenyl antigen by i.p. injection, suplatast tosilate (an inhibitor of the production of cytokines on Th2 cell) reduced productions of antigen specific IgE at 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/kg of oral administration for 5 days (Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013). In human cell culture immunized with Japanese cedar antigen, suplatast tosilate reduced productions of antigen specific IgE at the concentration of 10 μg/mL for 10 days (Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013).
- In the clinical study of renal transplantation, basiliximab decreased incidence of acute rejection at 20 mg/kg (Novartis Pharma 2016). In human T cell culture immunized with PPD, basiliximab reduced activation of antigen specific T cell at the concentration of 300 ng/mL (Novartis Pharma 2016).
- In CD3/phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-activated human T cells, FK506 suppressed production of IL-2, IL-4 and Interferon (IFN)-γ at the concentrations of 1.2 to 12.5 nM as well as inhibited expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA at the concentrations of 10 nM. (Dumont et al. 1998).
- FK506 or CsA suppressed production of IL-2 in mouse mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) at 0.1 to 10 nM of FK506 and 10 to 100 nM of CsA as well as in human MLR at 0.1 to 10 nM of FK506 and 10 to 100 nM of CsA (Kino et al. 1987a).
- After 9-day culture of B cells and non-pre-activated T cell stimulationwith FK506 or CsA, the levels of IgM and IgG in the culture supernatant were reduced at 0.3 and 1.0 ng/mL (0.37 and 1.24 nM) of FK506 or 50 and 100 ng/mL (41 and 83nM) of CsA (Heidt et al, 2009).
- After 4-day culture of SKW6.4 cells (IL-6-dependent IgM-secreting human B-cell line) and anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated PBMC culture supernatant with FK506 or CsA, the level of IgM in the culture supernatant was reduced at the concentrations of 0.01 to 100 ng/mL (0.01 to 124 nM) of FK506 or 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL (0.08 to 832 nM) of CsA (Sakuma et al, 2001).
- Rats were treated with FK506 for over four weeks and immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanine (KLH), after which serum concentration of anti-KLH IgM and IgG reduced at the dose levels of 3 mg/kg/day (Ulrich et al. 2004).
- Mice were treated with FK506 or CsA for 4 days, and immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), after which antigen-specific plaque-forming splenocytes reduced at the dose levels of 3.2, 10, 32 and 100 mg/kg of FK506 or 32 and 100 mg/kg of CsA (Kino et al. 1987b).
- 1,2:5,6-dibenzanthracene single adoministration suppressed production of IL-2 and total IgG antibody in mice at the dose levels of 3 and 30 mg/kg(Donna, C. et al. 2010).
- In male CD-1 mice, chronic psychosocial stress (types of social outcome occurred: residents becoming subordinates) for 21 days reduced IL-2 release in response to KLH and decrease in anti-KLH IgG(Alessandro, B. et al. 2003).
In vitro suppression of T-cell–derived cytokines and T-cell-dependent antibody production or antibody production after polyclonal T-cell stimulation showed similar dose responses to CNIs. Time gaps were found, however, between these two KEs, which showed earlier onset of cytokine production and delayed onset of antibody production.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
IL-2 affects multiple populations of immune cells expressing IL-2 receptors, while IL-4 mainly acts on B cells. Therefore, reduced production of both IL-2 and IL-4 might certainly induce suppression of TDAR; however, there remains some possibility of additional suppression of other immune functions.
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
Cynomolgus monkeys treated wth CsA at 50 mg/kg BID showed suppression of IL-2 and IL-4 production and inhibition of SRBC-specific IgM and IgG in TDAR (Gaida K. 2015).
In the blocking of IL-4 receptor in mice by dupilumab (anti-IL-4/13R antibody) at 25 mg/kg of twice weekly subcutaneous administration for 4weeks, IgE production was suppressed to about 1/100 and antigen specific IgG1 production was suppressed to about 1/200 (Sanofi K.K. 2018).
In the inhibition of IL-4 production in mice by suplatast tosilate at 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/kg of oral administration for 5 days, antigen specific IgE production was suppressed from about 1/10 to 1/100 (Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013). In human T cell culture by suplatast tosilate at the concentration of 10 μg/mL, antigen specific IgE production after 10 days was suppressed from 56 to 72% and IL-4 production after 3 days was suppressed from 58 to 76% (Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013).
As for IL-2 and antibody production, in vitro T-cell-induced polyclonal B cell activation to produce antibody was inhibited with anti-IL-2 and anti-IL-2R antibodies. That is, murine small resting B cells, cultured with irradiated hapten-specific TH1 clone, were induced to enter cell cycle at 2 days and to secret antibody at 5 days. An anti-IL-2 and anti-IL-2R antibodies completely inhibited this T-cell dependent antibody production (Owens T, 1991).
In the human T-B cell co-culture stimulated with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, CNIs of FK506 and CsA lowered the m-RNA levels of T-cell cytokines at 8h post-stimulation including IL-2 and IL-4 at 1.0ng/mL (1.24nM) FK506 or 100ng/mL (90.7nM) CsA and inhibited IgM and IgG productions after 9 days at 0.3 and 1.0ng/mL FK506 and 50 and 100ng/mL CsA (Heidt S. 2010).
In CsA-treatment for 24 days at 50 mg/kg BID, cynomolgus monkeys showed suppression of IL-2 and IL-4 production and inhibition of SRBC-specific IgM and IgG in TDAR (Gaida K. 2015).
In human T cell culture, suplatast tosilate inhibits IL-4 production after 3 days and antigen specific IgE production after 10 days (Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013).
In the human T-B cell co-culture, CNIs of FK506 and CsA lowered the m-RNA levels of IL-2 and IL-4 at 8h post-stimulation and inhibited IgM and IgG productions after 9 days (Heidt S. 2010).
Known modulating factors
At present, no evidence is found.
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
At present, no evidence is found.
Domain of Applicability
In cynomolgus monkeys, the effects of CsA on production of IL-2 and IL-4, and antigen-specific IgM and IgG in TDAR were demonstrated (Gaida K. 2015).
Suppressed IgE and antigen specific IgG1 productions by the blocking of IL-4 receptor were reported in mice using dupilumab (anti-IL-4/13R antibody) (Sanofi K.K. 2018).
Suppressed antigen specific IgE production by the inhibition of IL-4 production was reported in mice using suplatast tosilate (Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013).
Suppressed antigen specific IgE and IL-4 productions by the inhibition of IL-4 production were reported in human cell culture using suplatast tosilate(Taiho Pharmaceutical 2013).
The effects of FK506 on serum concentration of anti-KLH antibodies IgM and IgG have been demonstrated in rats treated with FK506 for over four weeks and immunized with KLH (Ulrich et al. 2004). The effects of FK506 and CsA on antigen-specific plaque-forming splenocytes have been demonstrated in mice treated with FK506 or CsA for 4 days and immunized with SRBC (Kino et al. 1987b).
The effects of FK506 and CsA on the levels of IgM and IgG in the culture supernatant have been demonstrated in human cells (Heidt et al, 2009, Sakuma et al, 2001).
The effects of FK506 and CsA on production of IL-2 and IL-4 have been demonstrated using mice and human cells (Kino et al. 1987a, Dumont et al. 1998).
These facts suggest that there are no species differences between humans, monkeys and rodents in inhibitions of IL-2 and IL-4 production and TDAR induction.
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- Novartis Pharma K.K. (2016). Drug interview form Simulect i.v. injection 20 mg. 10th edition.
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