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Relationship: 1926

Title

A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

GSK3beta inactivation leads to β-catenin activation

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
All life stages High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

GSK3beta inactivation leads to beta-catenin dephosphorylation, which avoids the ubiquitination of the beta-catenin and stabilize the beta-catenin (Clevers & Nusse, 2012).

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

GSK3beta recruitment to LRP6 leads to form un-phosphorylated beta-catenin inducing the stabilization and translocation of the beta-catenin (MacDonald, Tamai, & He, 2009).

Stabilized beta-catenin accumulates in cytosol and translocates into the nucleus leading to beta-catenin activation (MacDonald et al., 2009).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

GSK3beta phosphorylates LRP6 as well as remaining GSK3 beta phosphorylates beta-catenin which would be ubiquitinated and degradated (MacDonald et al., 2009).

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help

Sortilin, a member of the sorting receptor family that transport intracellular proteins, regulates GSK3-beta, beta-catenin and Twist pathway activation to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and glioblastoma invasion (Yang et al., 2019).

Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help

GSK3beta inhibition by 1 mM of SB216763 or 5 mM of BRD3731 results in the decreased phosphorylation and stabilization of beta-catenin (Stump et al., 2019). The level of beta-catenin is increased by the inhibition of GSK3beta kinase activity (Stump et al., 2019). GSK3beta inhibition by small interference RNA (siRNA) of GSK3beta results in the decreased phosphorylation and increased expression of beta-catenin (Stump et al., 2019).

Time-scale
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help

The treatment with SB216763 or BRD3731, GSK3beta inhibitors, decreases phosphorylated beta-catenin and increased beta-catenin expression in 48 hours (Stump et al., 2019). The cells are treated with GSK3beta small interference RNA (siRNA) for 48 hours to silence the expression of GSK3beta, which results in the activation of beta-catenin pathway (Stump et al., 2019).

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Beta-catenin is required and sufficient for the sequestration of GSK3 in acidic cytoplasmic endosomes (Taelman et al., 2010). Beta-catenin, of which level increases in Wnt signaling, facilitates GSK3 sequestration leading to feed-forward loop formation (Taelman et al., 2010).

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

GSK3-beta inhibition induced beta-catenin activation in human lung lymphatic endothelial cells (Homo sapiens) (Stump et al., 2019).

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Clevers, H., & Nusse, R. (2012). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and disease. Cell, 149(6), 1192-1205. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22682243. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.012

MacDonald, B. T., Tamai, K., & He, X. (2009). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases. Dev Cell, 17(1), 9-26. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619488. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2009.06.016

Pez, F., Lopez, A., Kim, M., Wands, J. R., Caron de Fromentel, C., & Merle, P. (2013). Wnt signaling and hepatocarcinogenesis: molecular targets for the development of innovative anticancer drugs. J Hepatol, 59(5), 1107-1117. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23835194. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.07.001

Stump, B., Shrestha, S., Lamattina, A. M., Louis, P. H., Cho, W., Perrella, M. A., . . . El-Chemaly, S. (2019). Glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta inhibition induces lymphangiogenesis through beta-catenin-dependent and mTOR-independent pathways. PLoS One, 14(4), e0213831. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30964887. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213831

Taelman, V. F., Dobrowolski, R., Plouhinec, J. L., Fuentealba, L. C., Vorwald, P. P., Gumper, I., . . . De Robertis, E. M. (2010). Wnt signaling requires sequestration of glycogen synthase kinase 3 inside multivesicular endosomes. Cell, 143(7), 1136-1148. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21183076. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.11.034

Wang, H. X., Li, T. Y., & Kidder, G. M. (2010). WNT2 regulates DNA synthesis in mouse granulosa cells through beta-catenin. Biol Reprod, 82(5), 865-875. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20107203. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.109.080903

Yang, W., Wu, P. F., Ma, J. X., Liao, M. J., Wang, X. H., Xu, L. S., . . . Yi, L. (2019). Sortilin promotes glioblastoma invasion and mesenchymal transition through GSK-3beta/beta-catenin/twist pathway. Cell Death Dis, 10(3), 208. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30814514. doi:10.1038/s41419-019-1449-9