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Relationship: 1927


A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

β-catenin activation leads to Snail, Zeb, Twist activation

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes.Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
All life stages High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

Beta-catenin activation, of which mechanism include the stabilization of the dephosphorylated beta-catenin and translocation of beta-catenin into the nucleus, induce the formation of beta-catenin-TCF complex and transcription of transcription factors such as Snail, Zeb and Twist (Clevers & Nusse, 2012) (Ahmad et al., 2012; Pearlman, Montes de Oca, Pal, & Afaq, 2017; Sohn et al., 2019; W. Yang et al., 2019).

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER. For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The treatment of human gastric cancer cells with INC280, which inhibits c-MET overexpressed in diffuse-type gastric cancer with poor prognosis, shows downregulation in beta-catenin and Snail expression, (Sohn et al., 2019).

The treatment with garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative that is obtained from Garcinia indica extract, induced ZEB1 and ZEB2 down-regulation, increase in phosphorylated beta-catenin and decrease in nuclear beta-catenin in human breast cancer cells (Ahmad et al., 2012).

Sortilin, a member of the Vps10p sorting receptor family which is highly expressed in high-glade malignant glioma, positively regulates GSK-3beta/beta-catenin/Twist signaling pathway in glioblastoma (W. Yang et al., 2019).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

It is possible that the inhibition of ZEB1 and ZEB2 by garcinol treatment is caused by down-regulation of NFkappaB and Wnt/beta catenin signaling (Ahmad et al., 2012).

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help

The proto-oncogene MET regulates beta-catenin and Snail expression (Sohn et al., 2019).

The inhibition of GSK3beta by SB216763 induced expression of beta-catenin and Twist, as well as mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin, vimentin and MMP9 (W. Yang et al., 2019).

Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help

The treatment with AF38469, a sortilin inhibitor, in 0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 nM concentration inhibited beta-catenin and Twist expression dose-depenently in human glioblastoma cells (W. Yang et al., 2019).

Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help

The treatment with 25 mM of garcinol for 48 hours induced increase in phosphorylated beta-catenin and decreased nuclear beta-catenin protein and ZEB1/ZEB2 mRNA in human breast cancer cells (Ahmad et al., 2012).

The treatment with AF38469, a sortilin inhibitor, for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 24 hours shows that the expression of beta-catenin and Twist decrease in 8 hours followed by the subsequent decrease in 16 and 24 hours in human gliobastoma cells (W. Yang et al., 2019).

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

The inhibited expression of phosphorylated GSK3beta, beta-catenin and Twist by sortilin inhibition is reversed by GSK3beta inhibition. Furthermore, twist overexpression by lentivirus increased the inhibited expression of N-cadherin, MMP9 and vimentin and reverses the inhibitory effect of AF38469 on sortilin, which suggests that sortilin induces glioblastoma invasion mainly via GSK3beta/beta-catenin/Twist induced mesenchymal transition (W. Yang et al., 2019).

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

The inhibition of c-MET decreases the expression of beta-catenin and Snail in human diffuse-type gastric cancer (Sohn et al., 2019).

The treatment with garcinol decreases the expression of beta-catenin and ZEB1/ZEB2 in human breast cancer cells (Ahmad et al., 2012).


List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Ahmad, A., Sarkar, S. H., Bitar, B., Ali, S., Aboukameel, A., Sethi, S., . . . Sarkar, F. H. (2012). Garcinol regulates EMT and Wnt signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo, leading to anticancer activity against breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther, 11(10), 2193-2201. Retrieved from doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-0232-T

Clevers, H., & Nusse, R. (2012). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and disease. Cell, 149(6), 1192-1205. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.012

Pearlman, R. L., Montes de Oca, M. K., Pal, H. C., & Afaq, F. (2017). Potential therapeutic targets of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma. Cancer Lett, 391, 125-140. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2017.01.029

Sohn, S. H., Kim, B., Sul, H. J., Kim, Y. J., Kim, H. S., Kim, H., . . . Zang, D. Y. (2019). INC280 inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin and EMT signaling pathways and its induce apoptosis in diffuse gastric cancer positive for c-MET amplification. BMC Res Notes, 12(1), 125. Retrieved from doi:10.1186/s13104-019-4163-x

Yang, W., Wu, P. F., Ma, J. X., Liao, M. J., Wang, X. H., Xu, L. S., . . . Yi, L. (2019). Sortilin promotes glioblastoma invasion and mesenchymal transition through GSK-3beta/beta-catenin/twist pathway. Cell Death Dis, 10(3), 208. Retrieved from doi:10.1038/s41419-019-1449-9