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Altered, Visual function leads to Increased Mortality
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to increased mortality via altered retinal layer structure||adjacent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to increased mortality via decreased eye size||adjacent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to increased mortality via altered photoreceptor patterning||adjacent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Inhibition of Fyna leading to increased mortality via decreased eye size (Microphthalmos)||adjacent||Vid Modic (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
In animals, whatever the taxa, visual abilities are strongly linked to their lifestyle (feeding, avoidance of predators, movement, protection....). When these capacities are impaired, they lead to reduced fitness and are therefore strongly linked to a decrease in survival, particularly in the early stages of life.
Evidence Supporting this KER
Decreases in visual functions can have a strong impact on behavior, leading to changes in individual response and abilities in the environment, including, for example, perception of food or avoidance of predators. Variation in the visual system can also influence learning tasks when visual stimuli are used (Corral-López et al., 2017).
Sensory drive has been implicated in speciation in various taxa, largely based on phenotype-environment correlations and signatures of selection in sensory genes, including view (Maan et al, 2017).
It can be assumed that an animal which has difficulties in finding food and avoiding predators will have lower survival chances in wildlife.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Known modulating factors
Increase according to global health of the population (e.g on trout (Post and Parkinson, 2001)
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
This KER is specific to early stages, the most sensitive stage of life. Vision plays a crucial role in the early life stages of most species, as timing of eye development and establishment of functional vision is essential for perception of food or avoidance of predators for example (Carvalho et al., 2002).
Babkiewicz, E., Bazała, M., Urban, P., Maszczyk, P., Markowska, M., & Maciej Gliwicz, Z. (2020). The effects of temperature on the proxies of visual detection of Danio rerio larvae: observations from the optic tectum. Biology Open, 9(7). https://doi.org/10.1242/BIO.047779
Besson, M., Feeney, W. E., Moniz, I., François, L., Brooker, R. M., Holzer, G., Metian, M., Roux, N., Laudet, V., & Lecchini, D. (2020). Anthropogenic stressors impact fish sensory development and survival via thyroid disruption. Nature Communications, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17450-8
Brown, S. B., Adams, B. A., Cyr, D. G., & Eales, J. G. (2004). Contaminant effects on the teleost fish thyroid. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23(7), 1680–1701. https://doi.org/10.1897/03-242
Carvalho, P. S. M., Noltie, D. B., & Tillitt, D. E. (2002). Ontogenetic improvement of visual function in the medaka Oryzias latipes based on an optomotor testing system for larval and adult fish. Animal Behaviour, 64(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2002.3028
Corral-López, A., Garate-Olaizola, M., Buechel, S. D., Kolm, N., & Kotrschal, A. (2017). On the role of body size, brain size, and eye size in visual acuity. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71(12). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-017-2408-z
Dehnert, G. K., Karasov, W. H., & Wolman, M. A. (2019). 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing herbicide impairs essential visually guided behaviors of larval fish. Aquatic Toxicology, 209(October 2018), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.01.015