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Altered, Visual function leads to Increased Mortality
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Inhibition of Fyna leading to increased mortality via decreased eye size (Microphthalmos)||adjacent||Vid Modic (send email)||Open for citation & comment|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via altered retinal layer structure||adjacent||Moderate||Low||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via decreased eye size||adjacent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via altered photoreceptor patterning||adjacent||Lucia Vergauwen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||Moderate|
Key Event Relationship Description
In animals, whatever the taxa, visual abilities are strongly linked to their lifestyle (feeding, avoidance of predators, movement, protection....). When these capacities are impaired, they lead to reduced fitness and are therefore strongly linked to a decrease in survival, particularly in the early stages of life.
Evidence Collection Strategy
Evidence Supporting this KER
Decreases in visual functions can have a strong impact on behavior, leading to changes in individual response and abilities in the environment, including, for example, perception of food or avoidance of predators. Variation in the visual system can also influence learning tasks when visual stimuli are used (Corral-López et al., 2017).
Sensory drive has been implicated in speciation in various taxa, largely based on phenotype-environment correlations and signatures of selection in sensory genes, including vision (Maan et al, 2017).
It is biologically plausible that an animal which has difficulties in finding food and avoiding predators will have lower survival chances in wildlife.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
It is obvious that impaired vision leads to higher mortality, as the sense of sight is important for survival, and if it is impaired, feeding or escape becomes more difficult. However, the number of studies investigating this connection is limited. It is often unclear to what extent this relationship is determined by altered visual function versus other pathways such as alterations in muscle development or other factors contributing to these types of behaviour. Also, the natural conditions, which depend on many variables, are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory or to compare between different laboratories.
Known modulating factors
Increase according to global health of the population (e.g on trout (Post and Parkinson, 2001)
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic applicability: The visual system of the fish (e.g., zebrafish) follows the typical organisation of vertebrates and is often used as a model to study human eye diseases. Although there are some differences, it is plausible to assume that visual function is important for survival across all vertebrates and invertebrates that have eyes.
Sex applicability: Zebrafish are undifferentiated gonochorists since both sexes initially develop an immature ovary (Maack and Segner, 2003). Immature ovary development progresses until approximately the onset of the third week. Later, in female fish immature ovaries continue to develop further, while male fish undergo transformation of ovaries into testes. Final transformation into testes varies among male individuals, however finishes usually around 6 weeks post fertilization. Effects on mortality resulting from altered visual function are therefore expected to be independent of sex.
Life stage applicability: It is plausible to assume that altered visual function of the eye would result in a higher mortality across all life stages. This could be especially true for the embryonic stages, the most sensitive stage of life. Vision plays a crucial role (in the early life stages) of most species, as eye development and establishment of functional vision is essential for perception of food or avoidance of predators for example (Carvalho et al., 2002).
Babkiewicz, E., Bazała, M., Urban, P., Maszczyk, P., Markowska, M., & Maciej Gliwicz, Z. (2020). The effects of temperature on the proxies of visual detection of Danio rerio larvae: observations from the optic tectum. Biology Open, 9(7). https://doi.org/10.1242/BIO.047779
Besson, M., Feeney, W. E., Moniz, I., François, L., Brooker, R. M., Holzer, G., Metian, M., Roux, N., Laudet, V., & Lecchini, D. (2020). Anthropogenic stressors impact fish sensory development and survival via thyroid disruption. Nature Communications, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17450-8
Brown, S. B., Adams, B. A., Cyr, D. G., & Eales, J. G. (2004). Contaminant effects on the teleost fish thyroid. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23(7), 1680–1701. https://doi.org/10.1897/03-242
Carvalho, P. S. M., Noltie, D. B., & Tillitt, D. E. (2002). Ontogenetic improvement of visual function in the medaka Oryzias latipes based on an optomotor testing system for larval and adult fish. Animal Behaviour, 64(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2002.3028
Corral-López, A., Garate-Olaizola, M., Buechel, S. D., Kolm, N., & Kotrschal, A. (2017). On the role of body size, brain size, and eye size in visual acuity. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71(12). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-017-2408-z
Dehnert, G. K., Karasov, W. H., & Wolman, M. A. (2019). 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid containing herbicide impairs essential visually guided behaviors of larval fish. Aquatic Toxicology, 209(October 2018), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.01.015
Flamarique IN. 2013. Opsin switch reveals function of the ultraviolet cone in fish foraging. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 280(1752).
Fuiman LA, Rose KA, Cowan JH, Smith EP. 2006. Survival skills required for predator evasion by fish larvae and their relation to laboratory measures of performance. Animal Behaviour 71:1389-1399.
Heijlen M, Houbrechts A, Bagci E, Van Herck S, Kersseboom S, Esguerra C, Blust R, Visser T, Knapen D, Darras V. 2014. Knockdown of type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase severely perturbs both
Houbrechts AM, Delarue J, Gabriels IJ, Sourbron J, Darras VM. 2016. Permanent Deiodinase Type 2 Deficiency Strongly Perturbs Zebrafish Development, Growth, and Fertility. Endocrinology 157(9):3668-3681.