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A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help
Increased Mortality leads to Decreased, Population trajectory
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Key Event Relationship Overview
The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help
AOPs Referencing Relationship
Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER. More help
An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Life Stage Applicability
An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER. More help
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help
- Increased mortality in the reproductive population may lead to a declining population.
Evidence Collection Strategy
Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER. For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings. Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help
Evidence Supporting this KER
Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream. This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured. More help
- Survival to reproductive maturity is a parameter of demographic significance. Assuming resource availability (i.e., food, habitat, etc.) is not limiting to the extant population, sufficient mortality in the reproductive population may ultimately lead to declining population trajectories.
Provides specific (citable) evidence that supports the idea of a change in the upstream KE (KEupstream) leading to, or being associated with, a subsequent change in the downstream KE (KEdownstream), assuming the perturbation of KEupstream is sufficient. More help
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help
There are scenarios in which individual mortality may not lead to declining population size. These include instances where populations are limited by the availability of habitat and food resources, which can be replenished through immigration.
The direct impact of pesticides on migration behavior can be difficult to track in the field, and documentation of mortality during migration is likely underestimated (Eng 2017).
Known modulating factors
This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references. More help
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
Captures information that helps to define how much change in the upstream KE, and/or for how long, is needed to elicit a detectable and defined change in the downstream KE. More help
- Assuming other relevant demographic parameters are available, the effect of increased mortality rates on population status can be quantitatively predicted using standard population modeling approaches.
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs. More help
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help
Domain of Applicability
A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help
- All organisms must survive to reproductive age in order to reproduce and sustain populations.
List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help
- Eng, M.L., Stutchbury, B.J.M. & Morrissey, C.A. Imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos insecticides impair migratory ability in a seed-eating songbird. Sci Rep 7, 15176 (2017)