API

Relationship: 450

Title

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Inhibition, Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) leads to Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest

Upstream event

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Inhibition, Acetylcholinesterase (AchE)

Downstream event

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Increased, Respiratory distress/arrest

Key Event Relationship Overview

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AOPs Referencing Relationship

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AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding
Acetylcholinesterase inhibition leading to acute mortality non-adjacent Moderate Low

Taxonomic Applicability

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Sex Applicability

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Life Stage Applicability

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Key Event Relationship Description

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  • Needs further development.

Evidence Supporting this KER

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Biological Plausibility

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  • Plausible links between acetylcholinesterase inhibition and respiratory distress or failure include:
      1. Acetylcholine accumulation at neuromuscular junctions associated with the diaphragm, potentially leading to inability to regulate movements of the diaphragm.
      2. Acetylcholine accumulation in cardiac tissue, leading to reduced heart rate and thus stimulation of respiratory stress in relation to reduced systemic oxygen availability.
    • Likely others

Empirical Evidence

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Include consideration of temporal concordance here

  • A study examining respiratory-cardiovascular responses in rainbow trout found that OPs and carbamates caused an increase in oxygen uptake, heart rate and ventilation volume (McKim et al., 1987b). Authors postulated the causation of these physiological responses was due to inhibition of AChE by the pesticides, although no concurrent measurement of AChE levels was conducted (McKim et al., 1987b).
  • Within one hour of exposure of broiler chicks to dichlorvos or diazinon symptoms indicative of cholinergic poisoning were observed including respiratory difficulty (gasping), tremors and convulsions (Al-Zubaidy et al. 2011).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies

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Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage

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We are unaware of any correlative relationships of significant predictive value with regard to this KER.

Response-response Relationship

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Time-scale

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Known modulating factors

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Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER

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Domain of Applicability

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References

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