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Decrease, GTPCH-1 leads to Decrease, Tetrahydrobiopterin
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of BH4, which is an essential cofactor for eNOS and NO generation (Wang et al., 2008). Oxidative stress can disrupt and decrease GTPCH-1 activity, leading to decreased BH4 levels and subsequent uncoupling of eNOS.
Evidence Supporting this KER
As GTPCH-1 is required for BH4 biosynthesis, there is strong biological plausibility for this relationship.
Many studies demonstrated that deletion of GTPCH-1 led to the deficiency of BH4 in endothelial cells. In the hph-1 mouse model, cardiac GTPCH-1 enzymatic activity was reduced by 90% compared to wild-type mice, which led to 60% reduction in BH4 levels (Adlam et al., 2012). In another mouse model of endothelial-targeted deletion of GTPCH-1, BH4 levels in lung, heart and aorta were significantly decreased compared to wild-type mice (Chuaiphichai et al., 2014). GTPCH-1 siRNA significantly reduced GTPCH-1 enzyme activity and BH4 levels in murine sEnd.1 and aortic endothelial cells (Crabtree et al., 2009; Tatham et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2008). The selective GTPCH-1 inhibitor diaminohydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) reduced levels of BH4 in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) (Wang et al., 2008). Also, transgenic overexpression of GTPCH-1 increased BH4 protein levels in murine hearts and aortas, leading to enhanced eNOS activity (Alp et al., 2003; Carnicer et al., 2012).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
There are no uncertainties or inconsistencies.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
The relationship between GTPCH-1 and BH4 is supported in humans (Jayaram et al., 2015), cows (Abdelghany et al., 2017; Whitsett et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2008), mice (Adlam et al., 2012; Chuaiphichai et al., 2014; Crabtree et al., 2009; Tatham et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2008) and rats (Cervantes-Pérez et al., 2012).
AbdelGhany, T., Ismail, R., Elmahdy, M., Mansoor F, Zweier J, Lowe, F., and Zweier, JL. (2017). Cigarette Smoke Constituents Cause Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Dysfunction and Uncoupling due to Depletion of Tetrahydrobiopterin with Degradation of GTP Cyclohydrolase. Nitric Oxide (Under review).
Adlam, D., Herring, N., Douglas, G., De Bono, J.P., Li, D., Danson, E.J., Tatham, A., Lu, C.-J., Jennings, K.A., Cragg, S.J., et al. (2012). Regulation of β-adrenergic control of heart rate by GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and tetrahydrobiopterin. Cardiovasc. Res. 93, 694–701.
Alp, N.J., Mussa, S., Khoo, J., Cai, S., Guzik, T., Jefferson, A., Goh, N., Rockett, K.A., and Channon, K.M. (2003). Tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent preservation of nitric oxide-mediated endothelial function in diabetes by targeted transgenic GTP-cyclohydrolase I overexpression. J. Clin. Invest. 112, 725–735.
Antoniades, C., Cunnington, C., Antonopoulos, A., Neville, M., Margaritis, M., Demosthenous, M., Bendall, J., Hale, A., Cerrato, R., Tousoulis, D., et al. (2011). Induction of vascular GTP-cyclohydrolase I and endogenous tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis protect against inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction in human atherosclerosis. Circulation 124, 1860–1870.
Carnicer, R., Hale, A.B., Suffredini, S., Liu, X., Reilly, S., Zhang, M.H., Surdo, N.C., Bendall, J.K., Crabtree, M.J., Lim, G.B.S., et al. (2012). Cardiomyocyte GTP cyclohydrolase 1 and tetrahydrobiopterin increase NOS1 activity and accelerate myocardial relaxation. Circ. Res. 111, 718–727.
Cervantes-Pérez, L.G., Ibarra-Lara, M. de la L., Escalante, B., Del Valle-Mondragón, L., Vargas-Robles, H., Pérez-Severiano, F., Pastelín, G., and Sánchez-Mendoza, M.A. (2012). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase impairment is restored by clofibrate treatment in an animal model of hypertension. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 685, 108–115.
Chen, C.-A., Lin, C.-H., Druhan, L.J., Wang, T.-Y., Chen, Y.-R., and Zweier, J.L. (2011). Superoxide induces endothelial nitric-oxide synthase protein thiyl radical formation, a novel mechanism regulating eNOS function and coupling. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 29098–29107.
Chuaiphichai, S., McNeill, E., Douglas, G., Crabtree, M.J., Bendall, J.K., Hale, A.B., Alp, N.J., and Channon, K.M. (2014). Cell-autonomous role of endothelial GTP cyclohydrolase 1 and tetrahydrobiopterin in blood pressure regulation. Hypertension 64, 530–540.
Crabtree, M.J., Tatham, A.L., Al-Wakeel, Y., Warrick, N., Hale, A.B., Cai, S., Channon, K.M., and Alp, N.J. (2009). Quantitative regulation of intracellular endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling by both tetrahydrobiopterin-eNOS stoichiometry and biopterin redox status: insights from cells with tet-regulated GTP cyclohydrolase I expression. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 1136–1144.
Jayaram, R., Goodfellow, N., Zhang, M.H., Reilly, S., Crabtree, M., De Silva, R., Sayeed, R., and Casadei, B. (2015). Molecular mechanisms of myocardial nitroso-redox imbalance during on-pump cardiac surgery. Lancet Lond. Engl. 385 Suppl 1, S49.
Tatham, A.L., Crabtree, M.J., Warrick, N., Cai, S., Alp, N.J., and Channon, K.M. (2009). GTP cyclohydrolase I expression, protein, and activity determine intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels, independent of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein expression. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 13660–13668.
Wang, S., Xu, J., Song, P., Wu, Y., Zhang, J., Chul Choi, H., and Zou, M.-H. (2008). Acute inhibition of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 uncouples endothelial nitric oxide synthase and elevates blood pressure. Hypertension 52, 484–490.
Whitsett, J., Picklo, M.J., and Vasquez-Vivar, J. (2007). 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal increases superoxide anion radical in endothelial cells via stimulated GTP cyclohydrolase proteasomal degradation. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2340–2347.