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Event: 1214

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, Hepatocytes

Short name
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Altered expression of hepatic CAR-dependent genes

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
regulation of gene expression abnormal

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
CAR activation- Hepatocellular tumors KeyEvent Kristin Lichti-Kaiser (send email) Open for citation & comment EAGMST Under Review


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
rat Rattus norvegicus NCBI
mouse Mus musculus NCBI
Hamster Hamster NCBI
human Homo sapiens NCBI
dog Canis lupus familiaris NCBI
Monkey Monkey NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

This key event describes the gene expression changes specific to activation of the constitutive androstane receptor transcription factor (CAR; NR1I3) in the hepatocytes of mammalian species that have been have been exposed to xenobiotics or endogenous activators. Changes in mRNA concentrations, protein concentrations, or protein activity may be used to measure CAR-dependent gene regulation.

CAR is maintained in a multiprotein complex in the cytoplasm in its inactive state. CAR may be activated by direct binding of a ligand (e.g. TCPOBOP) or by indirect mechanisms that do not involve ligand-CAR interactions (e.g., activation by phenobarbital). Activated CAR is released from the protein complex in the cytoplasm and is translocated to the nucleus, where it binds as a dimer with the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) to regulatory DNA elements of target genes. CAR-RXR binding to specific target genes is achieved via a highly conserved DNA-binding domain on the CAR molecule, and results in the stimulation or suppression of target gene transcription (Omiecinski et al., 2011bTolson and Wang, 2010).

CAR is primarily expressed in the liver and small intestine and is activated by a variety of xenobiotics and by endobiotics such as bilirubin. CAR-dependent expression profiles identified in the livers of all mammalian species include genes involved in phase I and phase II xenobiotic metabolism and transport, glucose metabolism, and lipid metabolism (Omiecinski et al., 2011aTolson and Wang, 2010). In rats and mice, but not other mammalian species, additional CAR-responsive genes that regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis have been identified (Peffer et al., 2018b). Some xenobiotics will induce several transcription factors simultaneously, and these transcription factors may regulate the expression of some of the same genes. For instance, there is some overlap between the gene expression profiles of CAR-responsive genes and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-responsive genes. Both PXR and CAR can dimerize with RXRα and have been shown to influence the expression of common genes involved in functions such as xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, and cell signaling, although each transcription factor also independently controls the expression of genes specific to that nuclear receptor as well (Cui and Klaassen, 2016Tojima et al., 2012Tolson and Wang, 2010).

Hepatic CAR-dependent genes have been identified by comparing the transcriptional profiles of wild-type mice to those of CAR-null mice after xenobiotic stimulation. These include genes involved in functions such as apoptosis, lipid metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism and transport, cholesterol biosynthesis, and cell cycle regulation (Aleksunes and Klaassen, 2012Tojima et al., 2012).

The induced expression of several genes have been used as indicators of hepatic CAR activation in mice and rats, but not all of these genes are specific to CAR activation. In particular, CAR activation leads to the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 CYP2B and CYP3A subfamilies, namely the increased expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp3a11 in mice, Cyp2b1/2 and Cyp3a1 in rats, and CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in humans (Cui and Klaassen, 2016Deguchi et al., 2009Geter et al., 2014Oshida et al., 2015aPeffer et al., 2018b). Cross-talk can occur between xenobiotics, and PXR activation can also induce CYP2B and CYP3A isoforms; however, unlike prototypical CAR activators, PXR activators will generally induce expression of CYP3A isoforms to a greater extent than CYP2B isoforms. Other metabolizing and transporter genes that are upregulated by CAR activation include UGT1A1, MRP2, SLC1A6, GSTA1 and GSTA2, and sulfotransferase enzymes have been found to be activated or suppressed by CAR activation with extensive variations based upon the species and sex of the animals (Tolson and Wang, 2010). This induction may be assayed at the mRNA level or the enzyme activity level (Elcombe et al., 2014Felter et al., 2018Peffer et al., 2018b). The induction of Ki67 and Gadd45b, genes that are implicated in cell proliferation, have also been used as indicators of CAR activation in mice and rats, although the expression of these genes is not strictly CAR-dependent (Columbano et al., 2005Peffer et al., 2018aPeffer et al., 2018b). Gadd45b can play an anti-apoptotic role, and its induction coincides with entry into an active cell cycle. It has been classified as a marker of immediate early phase of hepatocyte cell proliferation (Columbano et al., 2005). Ki67 is one of several cell cycle control genes that are transcriptionally altered in response to CAR activation to ultimately result in a pro-proliferative, anti-apoptotic environment (Peffer et al., 2018b).

A gene expression biomarker signature of CAR activation has been developed based on the genomic responses of livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators, namely phenobarbital, TCPOBOP, or CITCO, for three days. This resulted in a gene expression signature containing 83 genes (76 upregulated, 7 downregulated) that can be used to reliably predict CAR activation  in the mouse liver using a Running Fisher’s algorithm (Oshida et al., 2015a). This signature was shown to exhibit a prediction accuracy of 97% when tested against chemicals that are known to be positive and negative for CAR activation in the mouse.

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Changes in CAR-dependent gene expression is most directly determined by quantitating mRNA levels of the genes of interest isolated from chemical-exposed cultured hepatocytes or the livers of chemically-treated animals. Changes in mRNA levels are then statistically compared to levels detected in the appropriate controls, such as the livers of vehicle-treated animals, chemical-treated CAR-null animals, or vehicle-treated hepatocytes, to determine if there is a statistically significant change in CAR-dependent gene expression.

Recognizing that not all mRNAs are translated into protein, CAR-dependent gene expression changes may also be determined at the protein level or by quantitating changes in protein (e.g., enzyme) activity. The appropriateness of the method used to query for CAR-dependent gene expression is dependent on the design and goals of a particular experiment. For instance, high-throughput chemical screening for CAR activation may be best accomplished by evaluating the transcriptional response of query chemicals against a CAR mRNA expression signature (Oshida et al., 2015a), whereas protein level/activity determinations may be more appropriate in experiments in which a small number of proteins are of particular interest, such as experiments where the mode of action for a specific adverse effect in the liver are being investigated.

The measurement of mRNA levels of genes of interest can be accomplished using one of several well-established methods that are widely accepted by the scientific community. Methods such as quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), microarray expression profiling, and next generation sequencing methods (whole transcriptome RNA sequencing, e.g., RNA-seq) are highly specific, sensitive, and generate reproducible results. Microarrays and RNA-seq technologies in particular allow for the rapid and simultaneous quantitation of many transcripts. Advances in several of these techniques have enabled the reliable analysis of differential gene expression in a variety of sample types including cell lysates, frozen tissues, and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues.  

The quantitation of proteins of interest from cell lysates can be performed using immunostaining techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or denaturing gel electrophoresis followed by Western blot analysis. These techniques are well-established and well-accepted in the scientific community. Changes in specific protein activity may also be conducted if suitable assays are available. For instance, changes in activity level of enzymes can be determined using biochemical fluorometric assays. For CYP2B isoforms, the formation of resorufin from pentoxyresorufin (pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation; PROD) or from benzyloxyresorufin (benzyloxyresorufin-O-debenzylation; BROD) can be assayed, although there is some contribution from other Cyps, including those in the CYP3A family (Burke et al., 1985Burke et al., 1994Gervot et al., 1999Lake, 2009reviewed by Peffer et al., 2018bSun et al., 2006). Benzyloxyquinolone metabolism (BQ = benzyloxyquinoline-O-debenzylation) and testosterone 6-β-hydroxylase activity can also be used to measure CYP3A activity (Chovan et al., 2007Renwick et al., 2001Stresser et al., 2002).

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Gene expression can be modulated by nuclear receptor activation in all living systems, but the CAR nuclear receptor is only found in mammalian cells (Moore et al., 2006Omiecinski et al., 2011b), so therefore, the altered expression of CAR-responsive genes is specific to mammals. Evidence of CAR activation and altered gene expression has been studies in humans, as well as in rats, mice, hamsters, dogs and monkeys (Diwan et al., 1986Hasmall and Roberts, 1999Lake, 2018Lake, 2009Omiecinski et al., 2011bPeffer et al., 2018bReschly and Krasowski, 2006). As discussed in prior sections, the specific genes and the processes controlled by them are somewhat common following CAR activation across the mammalian species, but individual species differences are clearly observed. For example, cell proliferation and apoptosis control genes have been shown to be altered by CAR activation in mice and rats, but not in humans or hamsters (Peffer et al., 2018b).

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor


Phenobarbital (PB)

1.         The ability of PB to induce members of the CYP2B and CYP3A subfamilies of cytochrome enzymes in the livers of rats and mice as well as a number of other genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, cell proliferation, energy metabolism and lipid metabolism is well-established and has been demonstrated in multiple studies (Elcombe et al., 2014;  Peffer et al., 2018b;  Whysner et al., 1996;  Yamada et al., 2014). Examination of gene expression profiles of in CAR null mice revealed that not all PB-induced genes are CAR-dependent (Ueda et al., 2002).

2.         PB, TCPOBOP, CITCO were used to develop a CAR-dependent gene expression signature (83 genes) in the mouse liver that can be used to predict CAR activation. TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg body weight) was administered (i.p.) to wild-type and CAR-null mice once, followed by injection with vehicle for 2 consecutive days; CITCO (30 mg/kg body weight) and PB (100 mg/kg body weight) were administered once daily for three consecutive days; livers were isolated from mice 6 h after the last injection (Chua and Moore, 2012;  Oshida et al., 2015a). Genes that are upregulated in the CAR signature include Gadd45b and many associated with xenobiotic metabolism, including Cyp2b10 (Oshida et al., 2015a).



1.         The hepatic gene expression profiles of male rats administered 3600 ppm metofluthrin in the diet for one week had similar gene expression profiles to those of male rats administered 1000 ppm NaPB (a known CAR activator) for one week, including the modulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes. For example, a statistically-significant, dose-dependent induction of the mRNA levels of Cyp2b1/2 and Cyp3a1 was observed in the livers of male and female rats administered metofluthrin in the diet for one week (Deguchi et al., 2009;  Yamada et al., 2009). Additional experiments used RNA interference (RNAi) where CAR-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was co-incubated along with metofluthrin. Exposure of rat hepatocytes to metofluthrin plus the CAR siRNA in vitro resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the Cyp2b1 mRNA levels compared to hepatocytes treated with metofluthrin without CAR knockdown (Deguchi et al., 2009).


TCPOBOP (1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene)

1.         Hepatic CAR-dependent genes were identified by comparing the gene expression profiles of wild-type and CAR/PXR single and double-knockout mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.)  injection with TCPOBOP and/or  PCN (pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile; PXR activator) for 12 h prior to sacrifice (3 mg/kg body weight) (Tojima et al., 2012). Both common and unique gene target genes for CAR and PXR were identified. CAR-dependent gene targets included those involved in xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, cholesterol metabolism and lipid metabolism. A similar experiment in wild-type C57BL/6N mice administered TCPOBOP (i.p., 3 mg/kg) or PCN once daily for four days identified common and unique CAR- and PXR-target genes (Cui and Klaassen, 2016).

2.         The hepatic gene expression profiles of CAR-null, PXR-null, and PXR/CAR-null and WT rats after single treatment (i.p.; 16 h after injection) with vehicle (corn oil), PXR agonist PCN (100 mg/kg) and/or TCPOBOP (12.5 mg/kg) were compared. The results identified that PXR and CAR are involved in the regulation and expression of both common and different drug metabolizing genes in the rat liver (Forbes et al., 2017). As an example, induction of rat Cyp2b2 expression was avidly expressed in wild-type and PXR-null rats, but was blocked in the CAR-null and PXR/CAR-null rats.

3.         Comparison of gene expression profiles of wild-type and CAR null mice exposed to TCPOBOP (i.p.; 3 mg/kg bw/day) for 3 consecutive days and seven weeks revealed that TCPOBOP induced the expression of prototypical CAR-responsive genes (e.g. Cyp2b10) and lipogenic genes such as Fasn, Elovl6, Gpat and Pnpla3 (Marmugi et al., 2016).


CITCO [6-(4-chlorophenyl)-imidazo(2,1-b)thiazole-5-carbaldehyde]

1.         CITCO was identified as a CAR activator using an in vitro fluorescence-based CAR activation assay, and incubation of primary human hepatocytes isolated from two donors with 1 µM CITCO for 48 h resulted in the transcriptional upregulation of selected genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, including the prototypical CAR target gene CYP2B6 (Maglich et al., 2003).

2.         Genome-wide transcriptional profiling performed on primary human hepatocytes isolated from six individual donors exposed to 1 µM CITCO for 24 h resulted in the modulation of genes primarily involved in xenobiotic metabolism including CYP2B6, CYP2B7P1 and CYP2A7 (Kandel et al., 2016).

3.         WT and hCAR-KO HepaRG cells (human hepatic cell line) were exposed to vehicle or 1 µM CITCO for 24 h, and mRNA was subjected to global gene expression analysis. Comparative analyses identified both previously identified CAR-responsive genes and novel genes that were associated with hCAR activation (Li et al., 2015). These experiments also demonstrated that CITCO achieved CYP2B6 induction predominantly via hCAR activation, whereas phenobarbital induced CYP2B6 by both hCAR and hPXR activation. Many of the genes that were differentially expressed via hCAR activation reflected an inhibition of cell cycle progression (i.e. cell proliferation) in these human HepaRG cultures. These cell cycle/proliferation related pathways repressed by hCAR activation included the TGF-β, p53 and Jak-STAT pathways. In addition, the known role of activators of mCAR in mouse liver for controlling lipogenesis via gene expression changes was not apparent in human HepRG cells after treatments with known hCAR activators.

4.         In contrast to the results in HepaRG cells (above), immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) incubated with 1 µM CITCO for 48 h resulted in the induction of prototypical CAR-responsive gene CYP2B6, and genes/transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism that could suggest a lipogenic response in human liver (Marmugi et al., 2016).


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help

Aleksunes, L. M. and Klaassen, C. D. (2012), Coordinated regulation of hepatic phase I and II drug-metabolizing genes and transporters using AhR-, CAR-, PXR-, PPARalpha-, and Nrf2-null mice. Drug Metab Dispos 40, 1366-79, 10.1124/dmd.112.045112.

Burke, M. D., Thompson, S., Elcombe, C. R., Halpert, J., Haaparanta, T. and Mayer, R. T. (1985), Ethoxy-, pentoxy- and benzyloxyphenoxazones and homologues: a series of substrates to distinguish between different induced cytochromes P-450. Biochem Pharmacol 34, 3337-45.

Burke, M. D., Thompson, S., Weaver, R. J., Wolf, C. R. and Mayer, R. T. (1994), Cytochrome P450 specificities of alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation in human and rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol 48, 923-36.

Chovan, J. P., Ring, S. C., Yu, E. and Baldino, J. P. (2007), Cytochrome P450 probe substrate metabolism kinetics in Sprague Dawley rats. Xenobiotica 37, 459-73, 10.1080/00498250701245250.

Chua, S. and Moore, D. (2012), Analysis of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR/Nr1i3) ligand-dependent transcriptomes in wild type, CAR/Nr1i3 null mutant and human CAR/NR1I3 knockin mouse liver., v1.0, NURSA Datasets.

Columbano, A., Ledda-Columbano, G. M., Pibiri, M., Cossu, C., Menegazzi, M., Moore, D. D., Huang, W., Tian, J. and Locker, J. (2005), Gadd45beta is induced through a CAR-dependent, TNF-independent pathway in murine liver hyperplasia. Hepatology 42, 1118-26, 10.1002/hep.20883.

Cui, J. Y. and Klaassen, C. D. (2016), RNA-Seq reveals common and unique PXR- and CAR-target gene signatures in the mouse liver transcriptome. Biochim Biophys Acta 1859, 1198-1217, 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2016.04.010.

Deguchi, Y., Yamada, T., Hirose, Y., Nagahori, H., Kushida, M., Sumida, K., Sukata, T., Tomigahara, Y., Nishioka, K., Uwagawa, S., Kawamura, S. and Okuno, Y. (2009), Mode of action analysis for the synthetic pyrethroid metofluthrin-induced rat liver tumors: evidence for hepatic CYP2B induction and hepatocyte proliferation. Toxicol Sci 108, 69-80, 10.1093/toxsci/kfp006.

Diwan, B. A., Ward, J. M., Anderson, L. M., Hagiwara, A. and Rice, J. M. (1986), Lack of effect of phenobarbital on hepatocellular carcinogenesis initiated by N-nitrosodiethylamine or methylazoxymethanol acetate in male Syrian golden hamsters. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 86, 298-307.

Elcombe, C. R., Peffer, R. C., Wolf, D. C., Bailey, J., Bars, R., Bell, D., Cattley, R. C., Ferguson, S. S., Geter, D., Goetz, A., Goodman, J. I., Hester, S., Jacobs, A., Omiecinski, C. J., Schoeny, R., Xie, W. and Lake, B. G. (2014), Mode of action and human relevance analysis for nuclear receptor-mediated liver toxicity: A case study with phenobarbital as a model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator. Crit Rev Toxicol 44, 64-82, 10.3109/10408444.2013.835786.

Felter, S. P., Foreman, J. E., Boobis, A., Corton, J. C., Doi, A. M., Flowers, L., Goodman, J., Haber, L. T., Jacobs, A., Klaunig, J. E., Lynch, A. M., Moggs, J. and Pandiri, A. (2018), Human relevance of rodent liver tumors: Key insights from a Toxicology Forum workshop on nongenotoxic modes of action. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 92, 1-7, 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.11.003.

Forbes, K. P., Kouranova, E., Tinker, D., Janowski, K., Cortner, D., McCoy, A. and Cui, X. (2017), Creation and Preliminary Characterization of Pregnane X Receptor and Constitutive Androstane Receptor Knockout Rats. Drug Metab Dispos 45, 1068-1076, 10.1124/dmd.117.075788.

Gervot, L., Rochat, B., Gautier, J. C., Bohnenstengel, F., Kroemer, H., de Berardinis, V., Martin, H., Beaune, P. and de Waziers, I. (1999), Human CYP2B6: expression, inducibility and catalytic activities. Pharmacogenetics 9, 295-306.

Geter, D. R., Bhat, V. S., Gollapudi, B. B., Sura, R. and Hester, S. D. (2014), Dose-response modeling of early molecular and cellular key events in the CAR-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis pathway. Toxicol Sci 138, 425-45, 10.1093/toxsci/kfu014.

Hasmall, S. C. and Roberts, R. A. (1999), The perturbation of apoptosis and mitosis by drugs and xenobiotics. Pharmacol Ther 82, 63-70.

Kandel, B. A., Thomas, M., Winter, S., Damm, G., Seehofer, D., Burk, O., Schwab, M. and Zanger, U. M. (2016), Genomewide comparison of the inducible transcriptomes of nuclear receptors CAR, PXR and PPARalpha in primary human hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1859, 1218-1227, 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2016.03.007.

Lake, B. G. (2009), Species differences in the hepatic effects of inducers of CYP2B and CYP4A subfamily forms: relationship to rodent liver tumour formation. Xenobiotica 39, 582-96, 10.1080/00498250903098184.

Lake, B. G. (2018), Human relevance of rodent liver tumour formation by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activators. Toxicol Res (Camb) 7, 697-717, 10.1039/c8tx00008e.

Li, D., Mackowiak, B., Brayman, T. G., Mitchell, M., Zhang, L., Huang, S. M. and Wang, H. (2015), Genome-wide analysis of human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transcriptome in wild-type and CAR-knockout HepaRG cells. Biochem Pharmacol 98, 190-202, 10.1016/j.bcp.2015.08.087.

Maglich, J. M., Parks, D. J., Moore, L. B., Collins, J. L., Goodwin, B., Billin, A. N., Stoltz, C. A., Kliewer, S. A., Lambert, M. H., Willson, T. M. and Moore, J. T. (2003), Identification of a novel human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) agonist and its use in the identification of CAR target genes. J Biol Chem 278, 17277-83, 10.1074/jbc.M300138200.

Marmugi, A., Lukowicz, C., Lasserre, F., Montagner, A., Polizzi, A., Ducheix, S., Goron, A., Gamet-Payrastre, L., Gerbal-Chaloin, S., Pascussi, J. M., Moldes, M., Pineau, T., Guillou, H. and Mselli-Lakhal, L. (2016), Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor induces hepatic lipogenesis and regulates Pnpla3 gene expression in a LXR-independent way. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 303, 90-100, 10.1016/j.taap.2016.05.006.

Moore, D. D., Kato, S., Xie, W., Mangelsdorf, D. J., Schmidt, D. R., Xiao, R. and Kliewer, S. A. (2006), International Union of Pharmacology. LXII. The NR1H and NR1I receptors: constitutive androstane receptor, pregnene X receptor, farnesoid X receptor alpha, farnesoid X receptor beta, liver X receptor alpha, liver X receptor beta, and vitamin D receptor. Pharmacol Rev 58, 742-59, 10.1124/pr.58.4.6.

Omiecinski, C. J., Coslo, D. M., Chen, T., Laurenzana, E. M. and Peffer, R. C. (2011b), Multi-species analyses of direct activators of the constitutive androstane receptor. Toxicol Sci 123, 550-62, 10.1093/toxsci/kfr191.

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