Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|α-diketone-induced bronchiolitis obliterans||AdverseOutcome|
Key Event Description
Bronchiolitis obliterans is a lung disease characterized by obstruction of the smallest airways of the lungs.
The cumulative exposure to DA correlated with the degree of airway obstruction and the incidence of BO (Kreiss et al. 2002).
How It Is Measured or Detected
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)
Thoracoscopic lung biopsy showing histological and morphological changes (human, King et al. 2011)
Other typical symptoms include: dry cough, shortness of breath and wheezing.
Domain of Applicability
Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome
Kreiss et al. 2002 (first report of DA induced BO)
Kreiss 2014 (changes in the human lung after DA exposure)