Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|ROS-mediated chemical phototoxicity||KeyEvent|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
Reactive oxygen species yielded from photoactivated chemicals can cause cross-linking of proteins and oxidation of sulfydryl groups resulting in disulfide cross-links (Dalle Carbonare and Pathak, 1992).
How It Is Measured or Detected
As for in vitro systems, sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and other gel electrophoresis methodologies can detect denaturation of proteins (Dalle Carbonare and Pathak, 1992).
Domain of Applicability
Chemicals: This KE applies to a wide range of chemicals. The chemicals generate a reactive species, such as reactive oxygen species, following absorption of photon energy from light within the range of natural sunlight (290-700 nm) (ICH, 2014, Onoue and Tsuda, 2006).
Sex: This KE applies to both males and females.
Life stages: The relevant life stages for this KE are all life stages after born.
Taxonomic: This KE mainly applies to human.
Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor
Dalle Carbonare M, Pathak MA. Skin photosensitizing agents and the role of reactive oxygen species in photoaging. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1992;14:105-24.
ICH. ICH Guideline S10 Guidance on Photosafety Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals.: International Council on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use; 2014.
Onoue S, Tsuda Y. Analytical studies on the prediction of photosensitive/phototoxic potential of pharmaceutical substances. Pharmaceutical research. 2006;23:156-64.