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Event: 1846

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Thrombosis and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Thrombosis and DIC

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term
blood

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
Venous thrombosis platelet increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
SARS-CoV2 to thrombosis and DIC AdverseOutcome Shihori Tanabe (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Sars-CoV-2 causes stroke KeyEvent Magda Sachana (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Stressors

This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help
Name
Sars-CoV-2

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens Moderate NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages Not Specified

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific Not Specified

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

Thrombosis is defined as the formation or presence of a thrombus. Clotting within a blood vessel may cause infarction of tissues supplied by the vessel. Extreme aggravation of blood coagulation induces multiple thrombi in the microvasculature, which leads to consumption coagulopathy followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

DIC is a pathological syndrome resulting from the formation of thrombin, subsequent activation and consumption of coagulation proteins, and the production of fibrin thrombi. The initial pathologic events are thrombotic in nature resulting in thrombotic vascular occlusions.  The initial clinical events are usually hemorrhagic resulting in oozing from mucosa and massive gastrointestinal blood loss. The occlusive events occur as a result of fibrin microthrombi or platelet microthrombi that obstruct the microcirculation of organs. This obstruction can result in organ hypoperfusion and ischemia, infarction, and necrosis. All organs are potentially vulnerable to the effects of thrombotic occlusions.

The renal effects of DIC are multifactorial and may be associated with hypovolemia or hypotension. If the hypotension is not corrected it may lead to renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis. Fibrin thrombi may also block glomerular capillaries causing ischemic, renal cortical necrosis (Colman, 1984).

The cerebral effects of DIC often result in nonspecific changes such as altered state of consciousness, convulsions, and coma. Major vascular occlusions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, multiple cortical and brain stem hemorrhages may occur following microvascular occlusions (Schwartzman RJ, 1982).

The pulmonary effects of DIC may be caused by interstitial hemorrhage resulting in a clinical effect resembling acute respiratory distress syndrome (Schwartzman RJ,1973; Shahl RL, 1984).

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Clinical laboratory tests are used to diagnose DIC.

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot. PT measures the time required for fibrin clot formation after the addition of tissue thromboplastin and calcium. The average time range for blood to clot is about 10 to 13 seconds.

Activated partial prothrombin time (APTT). Platelet poor plasma [PPP] is incubated at 37°C then phospholipid (cephalin) and a contact activator (e.g. Kaolin, micronized silica, or ellagic acid) are added.  This leads to the conversion of Factor XI [FXI] to FXIa. The remainder of the pathway is not activated as no calcium is present.  The addition of calcium (pre-warmed to 37°C) initiates clotting. The APTT is the time taken from the addition of calcium to the formation of a fibrin clot. The clotting time for the APTT lies between 27-35 seconds.

Decreased fibrinogen concentrations

Diluted plasma is clotted with a high concentration of Thrombin. The tested plasma is diluted (usually 1:10 but this may vary if the Fibrinogen concentration is very low or very high) to minimize the effect of 'inhibitory substances' within the plasma e.g. heparin, elevated levels of FDPs. The use of a high concentration of Thrombin (typically 100 U/ml) ensures that the clotting times are independent of Thrombin concentration over a wide range of Fibrinogen levels. The test requires a reference plasma with a known Fibrinogen concentration and that has been calibrated against a known international reference standard. A calibration curve is constructed using this reference plasma by preparing a series of dilutions (1:5 –1:40) in the buffer to give a range of Fibrinogen concentrations. The clotting time of each of these dilutions is established (using duplicate samples) and the results (clotting time(s)/Fibrinogen concentration (g/L) are plotted on Log-Log graph paper. The 1:10 concentration is considered to be 100% i.e. normal. There should be a linear correlation between clotting times in the region of 10-50 sec. The test platelet-poor diluted plasma (diluted 1:10 in buffer) is incubated at 37°C, Thrombin [~100 U/mL] added (all pre-warmed to 37°C). The time taken for the clot to form is compared to the calibration curve and the Fibrinogen concentration deduced. Test samples whose clotting times fall out with the linear part of the calibration curve should be re-tested using different dilutions. Most laboratories use an automated method in which clot formation is deemed to have occurred when the optical density of the mixture has exceeded a certain threshold.

Platelet Measurements-

A platelet count is the number of platelets a person has per microliter. The ideal platelet range is 150,000 – 400,000 per microliter in most healthy people.

Fibrinolysis measurements-

        d-dimer concentration ALERE TRIAGE® D-DIMER TEST

D-Dimer can be measured by a fluorescence immunoassay. To determine cross-linked fibrin degradation products containing D-dimer in EDTA anticoagulated whole blood and plasma specimens. The test is used as an aid in the assessment and evaluation of patients suspected of having disseminated intravascular coagulation or thromboembolic events including pulmonary embolism

Procedure: 

Commercially available kits are available to measure d-dimer in whole blood or plasma. The kits contain all the reagents necessary for the quantification of cross-linked fibrin degradation products containing D-dimer in EDTA anticoagulated whole blood or plasma specimens.

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Homo sapiens

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP. For KEs that are designated as an AO, one additional field of information (regulatory significance of the AO) should be completed, to the extent feasible. If the KE is being described is not an AO, simply indicate “not an AO” in this section.A key criterion for defining an AO is its relevance for regulatory decision-making (i.e., it corresponds to an accepted protection goal or common apical endpoint in an established regulatory guideline study). For example, in humans this may constitute increased risk of disease-related pathology in a particular organ or organ system in an individual or in either the entire or a specified subset of the population. In wildlife, this will most often be an outcome of demographic significance that has meaning in terms of estimates of population sustainability. Given this consideration, in addition to describing the biological state associated with the AO, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to describe regulatory examples using this AO. More help

Thrombosis is one of the world’s main concerns in terms of severe symptoms or adverse responses of the vaccine for COVID-19 which is caused by SARS-CoV-2. Excess thrombosis leads to DIC, which might be mortal. For safely developing the therapeutics and vaccines of COVID-19, it is regulatory significant to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of coronaviral infection, which may include thrombosis and DIC, AO1846.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015). More help

Hemostasis and Thrombosis Basic Principles and Clinical Practices Robert W Colman, Jack Hirsh, Victor J. Marder, Edwin W. Salzman (ed) Philadelphia, 1994.

Schwartzman RJ, Hill JB: Neurologic complications of DIC. Neurology 32:791, 1982

Robboy SJ, Minna JD, Colman RW et.al. Pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome as a manifestation of DIC: Analysis of 10 cases. Chest 63:718, 1973.

Stahl RL, Javid JP, Lackner H: Unrecognized pulmonary embolism presenting as DIC. SM J Med 76:772, 1984.