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Event: 1869

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Diminished protective oxidative stress response

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Diminished Protective Response to ROS

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
cellular response to oxidative stress reactive oxygen species increased
response to reactive oxygen species reactive oxygen species increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
SARS-CoV2 to thrombosis and DIC KeyEvent Shihori Tanabe (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
SARS-CoV2 to hyperinflammation KeyEvent Hasmik Yepiskoposyan (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
SARS-CoV2 to pyroptosis KeyEvent Hasmik Yepiskoposyan (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
TLR9 activation leading to Multi Organ Failure and ARDS KeyEvent Gillina Bezemer (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and the detoxification of reactive intermediates. Reactive intermediates such as peroxides and free radicals can be very damaging to many parts of cells such as proteins, lipids, and DNA. Severe oxidative stress can trigger apoptosis and necrosis. [Ref. IPA, NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response, version60467501, release date: 2020-11-19]

The cellular defence/defense response to oxidative stress includes induction of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant enzymes. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to the antioxidant response elements (ARE) within the promoter of these enzymes and activates their transcription. Inactive Nrf2 is retained in the cytoplasm by association with an actin-binding protein Keap1. Upon exposure of cells to oxidative stress, Nrf2 is phosphorylated in response to the protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and MAP kinase pathways. After phosphorylation, Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, binds AREs, and transactivates detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, cytochrome P450, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase, heme oxygenase, and superoxide dismutase. [Ref. IPA, NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response, version60467501, release date: 2020-11-19]

Nrf2, a master regulator of oxidative stress through enhanced expression of anti-oxidant genes of glutathione and thioredoxin-antioxidant systems, has anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an activator of Nrf2, can decrease inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the inhibition of NF-kappaB by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes [Hassan et al., MED ARCH. 2020 APR; 74(2): 134-138] [Timpani et al., Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 15.].

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Oxidative stress can be measured as follows:

1. Direct detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS)

ROS can be detected by intracellular ROS assay, in vitro ROS/RNS assay. Nitric oxide can be detected in intracellular nitric oxide assay.

Hydroxyl, peroxyl, or other ROS can be measured using a fluorescence probe, 2', 7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), at fluorescence detection at 480 nm/530 nm.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be detected with a colorimetric probe, which reacts with H2O2 in a 1:1 stoichiometry to produce a bright pink colored product, followed by the detection with a standard colorimetric microplate reader with a filter in the 540-570 nm range.

2. Measurement of anti-oxidants

The level of catalase, glutathione, or superoxide dismutase can be measured as anti-oxidants. Catalase is an anti-oxidative enzyme that catalyzes the resolution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into H2O and O2. The chemiluminescence or fluorescence of HRP catalytic reaction can be detected with residual H2O2 and probes (DHBS+AAP, or ADHP (10-Acetyl-3, 7-dihydroxyphenoxazine)).

Anti-oxidant capacity is also one of the oxidative stress markers. Oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the cell-based exogenous antioxidant assay can be used for measuring the antioxidant capacity.

3. Detection of damages in protein, lipid, DNA or RNA

Oxidation of protein can be measured by the detection of protein carbonyl content (PCC), 3-nitrotyrosine, advanced oxidation protein products, or BPDE protein adduct. 

DNA oxidation can be detected with 8-oxo-dG / 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by ELISA.

Lipid peroxides decompose to form malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4, hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), natural bi-products of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation can be monitored by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances in biological samples. MDA and TBA form MDA-TBA adduct in a 1:2 stoichiometry and are detected by colorimetric or fluorometric measurement.

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Response to ROS occurs in many cell types and tissues in all life stages and the broad range of mammals.

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help

1. Hassan SM, Jawad MJ, Ahjel SW, Singh RB, Singh J, Awad SM, Hadi NR. The Nrf2 Activator (DMF) and Covid-19: Is there a Possible Role? Med Arch. 2020 Apr;74(2):134-138. doi: 10.5455/medarh.2020.74.134-138. PMID: 32577056; PMCID: PMC7296400.

2. Timpani CA, Rybalka E. Calming the (Cytokine) Storm: Dimethyl Fumarate as a Therapeutic Candidate for COVID-19. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(1):15.

3. Chepelev, N.L.; Kennedy, D.A.; Gagné, R.; White, T.; Long, A.S.; Yauk, C.L., White, P.A. HPLC Measurement of the DNA Oxidation Biomarker, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, in Cultured Cells and Animal Tissues. J Vis Exp 2015, e52697-e52697 [PMID: 26273842 DOI: 10.3791/52697]

4. Jackson, A.F.; Williams, A.; Recio, L.; Waters, M.D.; Lambert, I.B., Yauk, C.L. Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2014, 274, 63-77 [PMID: 24183702 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.10.019]

5. Lee, D. Y., Kang, S., Lee, Y., Kim, J. Y., Yoo, D., Jung, W., . . . Jon, S. (2020). PEGylated Bilirubin-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Biosensor for Magnetic Relaxation Switching-based ROS Detection in Whole Blood. Theranostics, 10(5), 1997-2007. doi:10.7150/thno.39662

6. Ashoka, A. H., Ali, F., Tiwari, R., Kumari, R., Pramanik, S. K., & Das, A. (2020). Recent Advances in Fluorescent Probes for Detection of HOCl and HNO. ACS omega, 5(4), 1730-1742. doi:10.1021/acsomega.9b03420