To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KE:1870

Event: 1870

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Sustentacular cells, decrease

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Sustentacular cells, decrease
Explore in a Third Party Tool

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Cell term
sustentacular cell

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
nose epithelium

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
SARS-CoV-2 causes anosmia KeyEvent Sandra Coecke (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Biological state: The sustentacular cells are one of the major non neuronal cellular constituents of the olfactory epithelium (OE). The olfactory sustentacular cells are believed to be partly epithelial and partly glial (Liang, 2020).

Biological compartment: The sustentacular cells are located in the OE.

General role in the biology: The sustentacular cells provide mechanical strength to the olfactory epithelium, generate the olfactory binding protein, and support the other cells with nutrients (Choi and Goldstein, 2018). Sustentacular cells are responsible for the maintenance of the ion and water balance within the olfactory epithelium (Suzuki et al., 2000). Sustentacular cells provide support to olfactory sensory neurons by maintaining ion balance (Vogalis, 2005).

Sustentacular cells have been proposed to be involved in peripheral processing of odorants in multiple ways:

  • appear to endocytose (clear) the odorant-binding proteins after signal transduction at the neurons’ cilia to allow the next round of odorant receptor binding, thereby increasing sensitivity (Heydel et al., 2013; Strotmann and Breer 2011).
  • express multiple CYP450-family monooxygenases, which hydroxylate and help to remove toxic volatiles (Heydel et al., 2013).
  • supply neuronal cilia with some of the glucose required to meet the high energy demands of the olfactory transduction cascade (Cooper et al., 2020; Villar et al., 2017).
  •  maintain the structural integrity of the olfactory epithelium (Bryche et al., 2020; Jia et al., 2010).
  • are closely associated, both metabolically and functionally, with olfactory neurons and with odorant signal transduction. (Butowt and von Bartheld, 2020)

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Butowt, R., and von Bartheld, C. S. (2020). Anosmia in COVID-19: underlying mechanisms and assessment of an olfactory route to brain infection. Neuroscientist doi: 10.1177/1073858420956905

Bryche B, St Albin A, Murri S, Lacôte S, Pulido C, Ar Gouilh M, Lesellier S, Servat A, Wasniewski M, Picard-Meyer E, Monchatre-Leroy E, Volmer R, Rampin O, Le Goffic R, Marianneau P, Meunier N. Massive transient damage of the olfactory epithelium associated with infection of sustentacular cells by SARS-CoV-2 in golden Syrian hamsters. Brain Behav Immun. 2020 Oct;89:579-586. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.032. Epub 2020 Jul 3. PMID: 32629042; PMCID: PMC7332942.

Torabi A., Mohammadbagheri E., Akbari Dilmaghani N., Bayat A.H., Fathi M., Vakili K., Alizadeh R., Rezaeimirghaed O., Hajiesmaeili M., Ramezani M., Simani L., Aliaghaei A. Proinflammatory cytokines in the olfactory mucosa result in COVID-19 induced anosmia. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2020