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Event: 1931

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Intestinal permeability, increased

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Intestinal hyperpermeability

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help

Stressors

This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help
Name
Sars-CoV-2

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

Together with the chemical barrier of the mucosal layer and the cellular immune system, the intestinal epithelial cell layer has two barrier functions:1–3

i. It acts as a physical barrier against external factors (pathogens, toxins),

ii. It acts as a selective barrier by regulating the absorption of essential dietary nutrients and  ions, meaning their transport from the lumen into the blood.

The physical barrier function of the one-cell-thick intestinal epithelium is ensured by tight junction proteins (occludins, claudins and zonulins), adherence junctions and desmosomes 2,4,5 and by epithelial cell integrity.

Intestinal permeability6 describes the movement of molecules across the intestinal barrier from the lumen to the blood (Figure 1), and as such, is the measurable feature of the intestinal barrier.

Figure 1.

Molecules can cross the epithelium via paracellular or transcellular route. Transcellular permeability encompass passive diffusion from the apical to the basal side, vesicle-mediated transcytosis and uptake mediated by a membrane receptor. Paracellular permeability is regulated by the tight junctions between adjacent cells.

Disruption of the intestinal barrier leads to increased intestinal permeability (Figure 2), also called intestinal hyperpermeability or “leaky gut”, enhancing the transport of pathogens, toxins (such as lipopolysaccharides), undigested nutrients, bacteria of the microbiota from the intestinal lumen into the systemic circulation3.

Figure 2.

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?
  1. In humans6

Intestinal Permeability Assessment (IPA) directly measures the ability of two non-metabolized sugar molecules (lactulose and mannitol) to permeate the intestinal barrier by paracellular passage (sign of perturbed tight junction-lactulose) or by transcellular passage (giving information of the whole epithelial absorptive area-mannitol), respectively. The patient drinks a premeasured amount of those sugars and 6h after, the ratio of Lactulose/Mannitol levels is measured in the urine 11.

Levels in plasma/serum or in feces of:

  • Markers of epithelial cell damage, such as intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP)
  • Markers of tight junction alterations, such as zonulin levels 4  
  • Microbial translocation, such as peptidoglycans and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and gut microbiota alteration.
  1. In vitro systems12

Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) or the Lucifer Yellow (LY) leakage assay are techniques to measure barrier integrity and permeability of a cell layer13. Caco-2 cells are human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with a structure and function similar to the differentiated small intestinal epithelial cells (e.g. exhibit microvilli). Caco-2 cells can be plated in wells as monolayers14,11. Other cell lines can be used, such as intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) or primary epithelial cells from human intestinal biopsies12. Co-culturing of enterocyte-like cells with immune cells in three-dimensional structure and within a microfluidic gut-on-chip has been shown to reflect better the physiology of the gut epithelium. Epi-IntestinalTM is an example of 3D human primary cell-based organotypic small intestinal model which allows evaluation of TEER and LY leakage assay15.[MOU1]

  1. In vivo system

In mice, one way to study intestinal paracellular permeability is by measuring the ability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran to cross from the lumen into the blood. After gavaging mice with FITC-dextran, the concentrations are measured in collected serum samples 14.

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Sars-CoV-2

Evidence: High levels of plasma markers of intestinal hyperpermeability and microbial translocation in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients 9,10 .

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015). More help

1.            Chelakkot, C., Ghim, J. & Ryu, S. H. Mechanisms regulating intestinal barrier integrity and its pathological implications. Exp. Mol. Med. 50, (2018).

2.            Groschwitz, K. R. & Hogan, S. P. Intestinal barrier function: Molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 124, 3–20 (2009).

3.            Ghosh, S. S., Wang, J., Yannie, P. J. & Ghosh, S. Intestinal barrier dysfunction, LPS translocation, and disease development. J. Endocr. Soc. 4, 1–15 (2020).

4.            Sturgeon, C. & Fasano, A. Zonulin, a regulator of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions, and its involvement in chronic inflammatory diseases. Tissue Barriers 4, 1–19 (2016).

5.            Sturgeon, C., Lan, J. & Fasano, A. Zonulin transgenic mice show altered gut permeability and increased morbidity/mortality in the DSS colitis model. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1397, 130–142 (2017).

6.            Bischoff, S. C. et al. Intestinal permeability - a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC Gastroenterol. 14, 1–25 (2014).

7.            Qiu, W. et al. PUMA-mediated intestinal epithelial apoptosis contributes to ulcerative colitis in humans and mice. J. Clin. Invest. 121, 1722–1732 (2011).

8.            Hering, N. A., Fromm, M. & Schulzke, J. D. Determinants of colonic barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease and potential therapeutics. J. Physiol. 590, 1035–1044 (2012).

9.            Giron, L. B. et al. Plasma Markers of Disrupted Gut Permeability in Severe COVID-19 Patients. medRxiv 2020.11.13.20231209 (2021).

10.          Prasad, R. et al. Plasma microbiome in COVID-19 subjects: an indicator of gut barrier defects and dysbiosis Ram. BioRxiv (2021).

11.          Aguirre Valadez, J. M. et al. Intestinal permeability in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Ther. Clin. Risk Manag. 12, 1729–1748 (2016).

12.          Fedi, A. et al. In vitro models replicating the human intestinal epithelium for absorption and metabolism studies: A systematic review. J. Control. Release 335, 247–268 (2021).

13.          Lea, T. Epithelial Cell Models; General Introduction. in The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health: in vitro and ex vivo models (eds. Verhoeckx, K. et al.) 95–102 (Springer International Publishing, 2015). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16104-4_9

14.          Li, B. R. et al. In Vitro and In Vivo Approaches to Determine Intestinal Epithelial Cell Permeability. J. Vis. Exp. 1–6 (2018). doi:10.3791/57032

15.          Ayehunie, S. et al. Human Primary Cell-Based Organotypic Microtissues for Modeling Small Intestinal Drug Absorption Seyoum. Pharm. Res. 35, 72 (2019).