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Event: 1932

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Gastrointestinal disorders

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
GI disorders
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE.Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Gastrointestinal disorders reflect an altered state of the intestinal homeostasis evidenced by diarrhea, and/or vomiting and/or nausea and/or abdominal pain.

Diarrhea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day (or more frequent passage than is normal for the individual) (WHO definition).

There are three clinical types of diarrhea:

  • acute watery diarrhea – lasts several hours or days;
  • acute bloody diarrhea – also called dysentery;
  • persistent diarrhea – lasts 14 days or longer.

Vomiting is clinically defined as the oral eviction of gastrointestinal contents, due to contractions of the gut and the muscles of the thoracoabdominal wall. Vomiting is a somatic motor event.

Nausea is a spontaneous sensation of the need to vomit. But the definition is poor.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Indicators of gastrointestinal disorders are evidenced by diarrhea and/or vomiting and/or nausea.

Diarrhea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day (or more frequent passage than is normal for the individual) (WHO definition).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Effenberger. (2020). Faecal calprotectin indicates intestinal inflammation in COVID-19. 323(11), 1061–1069.

Hayashi, Y., Wagatsuma, K., Nojima, M., Yamakawa, T., Ichimiya, T., Yokoyama, Y., … Nakase, H. (2021). The characteristics of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with severe COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Gastroenterology, 56(5), 409–420.

Jin, X., Lian, J. S., Hu, J. H., Gao, J., Zheng, L., Zhang, Y. M., … Yang, Y. (2020). Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms. Gut, 69(6), 1002–1009.

Nobel, Y. R., Phipps, M., Zucker, J., Lebwohl, B., Wang, T. C., Sobieszczyk, M. E., & Freedberg, D. E. (2020). Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Case-Control Study From the United States. Gastroenterology, 159(1), 373-375.e2.

Redd, W. D., Zhou, J. C., Hathorn, K. E., McCarty, T. R., Bazarbashi, A. N., Thompson, C. C., … Chan, W. W. (2020). Prevalence and Characteristics of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection in the United States: A Multicenter Cohort Study. Gastroenterology, 159(2), 765-767.e2.

Zhong, P., Xu, J., Yang, D., Shen, Y., Wang, L., Feng, Y., … Sun, Y. (2020). COVID-19-associated gastrointestinal and liver injury: clinical features and potential mechanisms. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1).