API

Event: 276

Key Event Title

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Up Regulation, TGFbeta1 expression

Short name

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Up Regulation, TGFbeta1 expression

Key Event Component

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Process Object Action
transforming growth factor beta1 production TGF-beta 1 increased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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AOP Name Role of event in AOP
Protein Alkylation leading to Liver Fibrosis KeyEvent

Stressors

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Level of Biological Organization

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Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

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Cell term
eukaryotic cell


Organ term

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens Strong NCBI
human and other cells in culture human and other cells in culture Strong NCBI
Rattus norvegicus Rattus norvegicus Strong NCBI
mouse Mus musculus Strong NCBI

Life Stages

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Sex Applicability

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How This Key Event Works

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The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family of cytokines are ubiquitous, multifunctional, and essential to survival. They play important roles in growth and development, inflammation and repair, and host immunity. The mammalian TGF-β isoforms (TGF-β1, β2 and β3) are secreted as latent precursors and have multiple cell surface receptors of which at least two mediate signal transduction. Autocrine and paracrine effects of TGF-βs can be modified by extracellular matrix, neighbouring cells and other cytokines. The vital role of the TGF-β family is illustrated by the fact that approximately 50% of TGF-1 gene knockout mice die in utero and the remainder succumb to uncontrolled inflammation after birth. The role of TGF-β in homeostatic and pathogenic processes suggests numerous applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases characterised by inflammation and fibrosis. [1] [2] [3] Abnormal TGF-β regulation and function are implicated in a growing number of fibrotic and inflammatory pathologies, including pulmonary fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, glomerulonephritis and diabetic nephropathy, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, Marfan syndrome, hypertrophic scars, systemic sclerosis, myocarditis, and Crohn’s disease. [4] TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the TGF-β superfamily of cytokines. TGF-β is synthesized as a non-active pro-form, forms a complex with two latent associated proteins latency-associated protein (LAP) and latent TGF- β binding protein (LTBP) and undergoes protolithic cleavage by the endopeptidase furin to generate the mature TGF-β dimer. Among the TGF-βs, six distinct isoforms have been discovered although only the TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 isoforms are expressed in mammals, and their human genes are located on chromosomes 19q13, 1q41 and 14q24, respectively. Out of the three TGF-β isoforms (β1, β2 and β3) only TGF-β1 was linked to fibrogenesis and is the most potent fibrogenic factor for hepatic stellate cells. [5][6]. During fibrogenesis, tissue and blood levels of active TGF-β are elevated and overexpression of TGF-β1 in transgenic mice can induce fibrosis. Additionally, experimental fibrosis can be inhibited by anti-TGF-β treatments with neutralizing antibodies or soluble TGF-β receptors [7][8][9][10] TGF-β1 induces its own mRNA to sustain high levels in local sites of injury.The effects of TGF-β1 are classically mediated by intracellular signalling via Smad proteins. Smads 2 and 3 are stimulatory whereas Smad 7 is inhibitory. [11][12][13] Smad1/5/8, MAP kinase (mitogen-activated protein) and PI3 kinase are further signalling pathways in different cell types for TGF-β1 effects.

TGF-β is found in all tissues, but is particularly abundant in bone, lung, kidney and placental tissue. TGF-β is produced by many, but not all parenchymal cell types, and is also produced or released by infiltrating cells such as lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and platelets. Following wounding or inflammation, all these cells are potential sources of TGF-β. In general, the release and activation of TGF-β stimulates the production of various extracellular matrix proteins and inhibits the degradation of these matrix proteins. [14]

TGF-β 1 is produced by every leukocyte lineage, including lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and its expression serves in both autocrine and paracrine modes to control the differentiation, proliferation, and state of activation of these immune cells. [15]

In the liver TGF-β1 is released by activated Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and platelets; in the further course of events also activated hepatic stellate cells express TGF-β1. Hepatocytes do not produce TGF-β1 but are implicated in intracellular activation of latent TGF-β1.[16][17][18][19][20]

TGF-β1 is the most established mediator and regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) which further contributes to the production of extracellular matrix. It has been shown that TGF-β1 mediates EMT by inducing snail-1 transcription factor and tyrosine phosphorylation of Smad2/3 with subsequent recruitment of Smad4. [21][22][23][24][25][26] [27][28][29] [18] [19] [11] [12][20]

TGF-β1 induces apoptosis and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) High levels of VEGF and TGF-β1 are present in many tumors. Crosstalk between the signalling pathways activated by these growth factors controls endothelial cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. [1]


How It Is Measured or Detected

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There are several assays for TGB-β1 measurement available.

e.g. Human TGF-β1 ELISA Kit. The Human TGF-β 1 ELISA (Enzyme –Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is an in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of human TGF-β1 in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, and urine. This assay employs an antibody specific for human TGF-β1 coated on a 96-well plate. Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and TGF-β1 present in a sample is bound to the wells by the immobilized antibody. The wells are washed and biotinylated anti-human TGF-β1 antibody is added. After washing away unbound biotinylated antibody, HRP- conjugated streptavidin is pipetted to the wells. The wells are again washed, a TMB substrate solution is added to the wells and colour develops in proportion to the amount of TGF-β1 bound. The StopSolution changes the colour from blue to yellow, and the intensity of the colour is measured at 450 nm [30]


Evidence Supporting Taxonomic Applicability

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Human: [2] Rat: [31] Mouse: [32]


References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Clark, D.A. and R.Coker (1998), Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), Int J Biochem Cell Biol, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 293-298.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Santibañez J.F., M. Quintanilla and C. Bernabeu (2011), TGF-β/TGF-β receptor system and its role in physiological and pathological conditions, Clin Sci (Lond), vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 233-251.
  3. Pohlers , D. et al. (2009), TGF-β and fibrosis in different organs – molecular pathway imprints, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol. 1792, no. 8, pp.746–756.
  4. Gordon, K.J. and G.C. Blobe (2008), Role of transforming growth factor-β superfamily signalling pathways in human disease, Biochim Biophys Acta, vol. 1782, no. 4, pp. 197–228.
  5. Roberts, A.B. (1998), Molecular and cell biology of TGF-β, Miner Electrolyte Metab, vol. 24, no. 2-3, pp. 111-119.
  6. Govinden, R. and K.D. Bhoola (2003), Genealogy, expression, and cellular function of transforming growth factor-β, Pharmacol. Ther, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 257–265.
  7. Qi Z et al.(1999),Blockade of type beta transforming growth factor signalling prevents liver fibrosis and dysfunction in the rat, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 2345-2349.
  8. Shek, F.W. and R.C. Benyon (2004), How can transforming growth factor beta be targeted usefully to combat liver fibrosis? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 16, no. 2, pp.123-126.
  9. De Gouville, A.C. et al. (2005), Inhibition of TGF-beta signaling by an ALK5 inhibitor protects rats from dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis, Br J Pharmacol, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 166–177.
  10. Cheng, K., N.Yang and R.I. Mahato (2009), TGF-beta1 gene silencing for treating liver fibrosis, Mol Pharm, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 772–779.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Parsons, C.J., M.Takashima and R.A. Rippe (2007), Molecular mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 22, Suppl.1, pp. S79-S84.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Friedman, S.L. (2008), Mechanisms of Hepatic Fibrogenesis, Gastroenterology, vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 1655–1669.
  13. Kubiczkova, L. et al, (2012), TGF-β - an excellent servant but a bad master, J Transl Med, vol. 10, p. 183.
  14. Branton, M.H. and J.B. Kopp (1999), TGF-beta and fibrosis, Microbes Infect, vol. 1, no. 15, pp. 1349-1365.
  15. Letterio, J.J. and A.B. Roberts (1998), Regulation of immune responses by TGF-beta, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.16, pp. 137-161.
  16. Roth, S., K. Michel and A.M. Gressner (1998), (Latent) transforming growth factor beta in liver parenchymal cells, its injury-dependent release, and paracrine effects on rat HSCs, Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1003-1012.
  17. Kisseleva, T. and Brenner, D.A. (2007), Role of hepatic stellate cells in fibrogenesis and the reversal of fibrosis, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 22, Suppl. 1; pp. S73–S78.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Kisseleva T and Brenner DA, (2008), Mechanisms of Fibrogenesis, Exp Biol Med, vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 109-122.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Poli, G. (2000), Pathogenesis of liver fibrosis: role of oxidative stress, Mol Aspects Med, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 49 – 98.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Liu, Xingjun et al. (2006), Therapeutic strategies against TGF-beta signaling pathway in hepatic fibrosis. Liver Int, vol.26, no.1, pp. 8-22.
  21. Kolios, G., V. Valatas and E. Kouroumalis (2006), Role of Kupffer cells in the pathogenesis of liver disease, World J.Gastroenterol, vol. 12, no. 46, pp. 7413-7420.
  22. Bataller, R. and D.A. Brenner (2005), Liver Fibrosis, J.Clin. Invest, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 209-218.
  23. Guo, J. and S.L. Friedman (2007), Hepatic fibrogenesis, Semin Liver Dis, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 413-426.
  24. Brenner, D.A. (2009), Molecular Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis, Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc, vol. 120, pp. 361–368.
  25. Kaimori, A. et al. (2007), Transforming growth factor-beta1 induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition state in mouse hepatocytes in vitro, J Biol Chem, vol. 282, no. 30, pp. 22089-22101.
  26. Gressner, A.M. et al. (2002), Roles of TGF-β in hepatic fibrosis. Front Biosci, vol. 7, pp. 793-807.
  27. Kershenobich Stalnikowitz, D. and A.B. Weisssbrod (2003), Liver Fibrosis and Inflammation. A Review, Annals of Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp.159-163.
  28. Li, Jing-Ting et al. (2008), Molecular mechanism of hepatic stellate cell activation and antifibrotic therapeutic strategies, J Gastroenterol, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 419–428.
  29. Matsuoka, M. and H. Tsukamoto, (1990), Stimulation of hepatic lipocyte collagen production by Kupffer cell-derived transforming growth factor beta: implication for a pathogenetic role in alcoholic liver fibrogenesis, Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 599-605.
  30. Mazzieri, R .et al. (2000), Measurements of Active TGF-β Generated by Culture Cells, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 142, pp. 13-27, DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-053-5:13.
  31. Luckey, S.W., and D.R. Petersen (2001), Activation of Kupffer cells during the course of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats, Exp Mol Pathol, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 226-240.
  32. Nan, Y.M. et al. (2013), Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha ameliorates ethanol mediated liver fibrosis in mice, Lipids Health Dis, vol. 12, p.11.