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Key Event Title
Increase, Pericardial edema
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
Key Event Description
Pericardial edema is the build-up of fluid in the pericardial sac of the heart (http://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/mp_ontology/MP:0001787). Not to be confused with pericardial effusion which describes the accumlation of fluid in the pericardial cavity (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pericardial_effusion), rather than the intercellular tissue spaces.
How It Is Measured or Detected
In experimental studies, edema is often scored as present or absent rather than being measured quantitatively. The severity of the edema can be scored based on the area of the pericardial cavity, which can be estimated using CT, ultrasound or MRI equipped with imaging software. This technique has been demonstrated by Prasch et al. (2003) in zebrafish to quantify the pericardial sac area.
Domain of Applicability
Birds (Kopt and Walker 2009), fish (Prasch et al. 2003) and mammals are susceptible to pericardial edema (Flores et al. 2014; Cawdellsmith et al. 1992).
1. Thakur, V., Fouron, J. C., Mertens, L., and Jaeggi, E. T. (2013). Diagnosis and management of fetal heart failure. Can. J Cardiol. 29(7), 759-767.
2. Prasch, A. L., Teraoka, H., Carney, S. A., Dong, W., Hiraga, T., Stegeman, J. J., Heideman, W., and Peterson, R. E. (2003). Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin developmental toxicity in zebrafish. Toxicol. Sci. 76(1), 138-150.
3. Kopf, P. G., and Walker, M. K. (2009). Overview of developmental heart defects by dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides. J. Environ. Sci. Health C. Environ. Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev. 27(4), 276-285.
4. Flores, L.E., Hildebrandt, T.B., Kuhl, A.A., and Drews, B. (2014) Early detection and staging of spontaneous embryo resorption by ultrasound biomicroscopy in murine pregnancy. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 12(38). DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-12-38
5. Cawdellsmith, J., Upfold, J., Edwards, M., and Smith, M. (1992) Neural-tube and other developmental anomalies in the guinea-pig following maternal hyperthermia during early neural-tube development. Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis. 12(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.1002/tcm.1770120102