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Event: 446

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Reduction, testosterone level

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Reduction, testosterone level
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Tissue

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
blood

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
testosterone decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
PPAR and reproductive toxicity KeyEvent Elise Grignard (send email) Not under active development Under Development
PPARα activation leading to impaired fertility KeyEvent Elise Grignard (send email) Open for citation & comment EAGMST Under Review
Adult Leydig Cell Dysfunction KeyEvent Susan Laws (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Biological state

Testosterone (T) is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. T serves as a substrate for two metabolic pathways that produce antagonistic sex steroids.

Biological compartments

Testosterone is synthesized by the gonads and other steroidogenic tissues (e.g., brain, adipose), acts locally and/or is transported to other tissues via blood circulation. Leydig cells are the testosterone-producing cells of the testis.

General role in biology

Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation at puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behaviour. Apart from their effects on reproduction, androgens affect a wide variety of non-reproductive tissues such as skin, bone, muscle, and brain (Heemers, Verhoeven, & Swinnen, 2006). Androgens, principally T and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), exert most of their effects by interacting with a specific receptor, the androgen receptor (AR), for review see (Murashima, Kishigami, Thomson, & Yamada, 2015). On the one hand, testosterone can be reduced by 5α-reductase to produce 5α dihydrotestosterone (DHT). On the other hand, testosterone can be aromatized to generate estrogens. Testosterone effects can also be classified by the age of usual occurrence, postnatal effects in both males and females are mostly dependent on the levels and duration of circulating free testosterone.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Testosterone can be measured by immunoassays and by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in serum (Taieb et al., 2003), (Paduch et al., 2014). Testosterone levels are measured i.a. in: Fish Lifecycle Toxicity Test (FLCTT) (US EPA OPPTS 850.1500), Male pubertal assay (PP Male Assay) (US EPA OPPTS 890.1500), OECD TG 441: Hershberger Bioassay in Rats (H Assay).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Key enzymes needed for testosterone production first appear in the common ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates (Baker 2011). Consequently, this key event is applicable to most vertebrates, including humans.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Heemers, H. V, Verhoeven, G., & Swinnen, J. V. (2006). Androgen activation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway: Current insights. Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 20(10), 2265–77. doi:10.1210/me.2005-0479

Murashima, A., Kishigami, S., Thomson, A., & Yamada, G. (2015). Androgens and mammalian male reproductive tract development. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1849(2), 163–170. doi:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.05.020

Paduch, D. A., Brannigan, R. E., Fuchs, E. F., Kim, E. D., Marmar, J. L., & Sandlow, J. I. (2014). The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency. Urology, 83(5), 980–8. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2013.12.024

Taieb, J., Mathian, B., Millot, F., Patricot, M.-C., Mathieu, E., Queyrel, N., … Boudou, P. (2003). Testosterone measured by 10 immunoassays and by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in sera from 116 men, women, and children. Clinical Chemistry, 49(8), 1381–95.