API

Event: 986

Key Event Title

?

Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection

Short name

?

Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection

Biological Context

?

Level of Biological Organization
Individual



Key Event Components

?

Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

?

AOP Name Role of event in AOP
IL-1 inhibition AdverseOutcome

Stressors

?


Taxonomic Applicability

?

Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus High NCBI
Rattus norvegicus Rattus norvegicus High NCBI

Life Stages

?

Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

?

Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

?


Impaired IL-1 signaling caused by blocking of IL-1 receptor increase susceptibility to infection.


How It Is Measured or Detected

?


By comparison of the incidence of infection between individuals exposed to stressors and non-exposed individuals.


Domain of Applicability

?


Although sex differences in immune responses are well known (Klein and Flanagan, 2016), there is no reports regarding the sex difference in IL-1 production, IL-1 function or susceptibility to infection as adverse effect of IL-1 blocking agent.  Again, age-dependent difference in IL-1 signaling is not known. 

The IL1B gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, and frog (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/homologene/481), and the Myd88 gene is conserved in human, chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, rat, chicken, zebrafish, mosquito, and frog (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/homologene?Db=homologene&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=1849).

These data suggest that the proposed AOP regarding inhibition of IL-1 signaling is not dependent on life stage, sex, age or species.


Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor



Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

?


It is crucial to notice chemicals that potentially induce immunosuppression leading to increased susceptibility to infection in public health.


References

?


Klein, S.L., Flanagan, K.L., 2016. Sex differences in immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol 16, 626-638.