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Key Event Title
Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
The protection of host against microbial infection depends on both innate and acquired immunity. In particular, both T cell and antibody production by B cells play a principal role.
How It Is Measured or Detected
By comparison of the incidence of infection between individuals exposed to stressors and non-exposed individuals.
Domain of Applicability
The increased susceptibility to infection caused by IL-1RA or anti-IL-1 antibody has been reported in both humans and mice. (Fleischmann et al., 2003; De Benedetti et al., 2018; Hirsch et al., 1996)
Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor
Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome
After L-1R antagonist or neutralizing antibody such as IL-1Ra (generic anakinra), canakinumab (anti-IL-1b antibody) and rilonacept (soluble IL-1R) became available to treat some of autoinflammatory syndromes, it became clear that these inhibitors increased the frequency of serious bacterial infection (De Benedetti et al., 2018; Genovese et al., 2004; Imagawa et al., 2013; Kullenberg et al., 2016; Lachmann et al., 2009; Lequerre et al., 2008; Migkos et al., 2015; Schlesinger et al., 2012; Yokota et al., 2017).
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Yokota, S., Imagawa, T., Nishikomori, R., et al., 2017. Long-term safety and efficacy of canakinumab in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome: results from an open-label, phase III pivotal study in Japanese patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 35 Suppl 108, 19-26.