API

Event: 986

Key Event Title

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Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection

Short name

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Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Individual



Key Event Components

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Process Object Action

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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AOP Name Role of event in AOP
IL-1 inhibition AdverseOutcome

Stressors

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus High NCBI
Rattus norvegicus Rattus norvegicus High NCBI

Life Stages

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Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

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The protection of host against microbial infection depends on both innate and acquired immunity. In particular, both T cell and antibody production by B cells play a principal role.


How It Is Measured or Detected

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By comparison of the incidence of infection between individuals exposed to stressors and non-exposed individuals.


Domain of Applicability

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The increased susceptibility to infection caused by IL-1RA or anti-IL-1 antibody has been reported in both humans and mice. (Fleischmann et al., 2003; De Benedetti et al., 2018; Hirsch et al., 1996)


Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor



Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

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It is crucial to notice chemicals that potentially induce immunosuppression leading to increased susceptibility to infection in public health.


References

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De Benedetti, F., Gattorno, M., Anton, J., et al., 2018. Canakinumab for the Treatment of Autoinflammatory Recurrent Fever Syndromes. N Engl J Med 378, 1908-1919.

Fleischmann, R.M., Schechtman, J., Bennett, R., et al., 2003. Anakinra, a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (r-metHuIL-1ra), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A large, international, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 48, 927-934.

Hirsch, E., Irikura, V.M., Paul, S.M., et al., 1996. Functions of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in gene knockout and overproducing mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 11008-11013.