Event: 986

Key Event Title


Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection

Short name


Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection

Biological Context


Level of Biological Organization

Key Event Components


Process Object Action

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event


AOP Name Role of event in AOP
IL-1 inhibition AdverseOutcome



Taxonomic Applicability


Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus High NCBI
Rattus norvegicus Rattus norvegicus High NCBI

Life Stages


Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability


Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description


The protection of host against microbial infection depends on both innate and acquired immunity. In particular, both T cell and antibody production by B cells play a principal role.

How It Is Measured or Detected


By comparison of the incidence of infection between individuals exposed to stressors and non-exposed individuals.

Domain of Applicability


The increased susceptibility to infection caused by IL-1RA or anti-IL-1 antibody has been reported in both humans and mice. (Fleischmann et al., 2003; De Benedetti et al., 2018; Hirsch et al., 1996)

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome


After L-1R antagonist or neutralizing antibody such as IL-1Ra (generic anakinra), canakinumab (anti-IL-1b antibody) and rilonacept (soluble IL-1R) became available to treat some of autoinflammatory syndromes, it became clear that these inhibitors increased the frequency of serious bacterial infection (De Benedetti et al., 2018; Genovese et al., 2004; Imagawa et al., 2013; Kullenberg et al., 2016; Lachmann et al., 2009; Lequerre et al., 2008; Migkos et al., 2015; Schlesinger et al., 2012; Yokota et al., 2017).



Auphan, N., DiDonato, J.A., Rosette, C., et al., 1995. Immunosuppression by glucocorticoids: inhibition of NF-kappa B activity through induction of I kappa B synthesis. Science 270, 286-290.

Chatham, W.W., 2019. Glucocorticoid effects on the immune system.

De Benedetti, F., Gattorno, M., Anton, J., et al., 2018. Canakinumab for the Treatment of Autoinflammatory Recurrent Fever Syndromes. N Engl J Med 378, 1908-1919.

Genovese, M.C., Cohen, S., Moreland, L., et al., 2004. Combination therapy with etanercept and anakinra in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have been treated unsuccessfully with methotrexate. Arthritis Rheum 50, 1412-1419.

Guler, R., Parihar, S.P., Spohn, G., et al., 2011. Blocking IL-1alpha but not IL-1beta increases susceptibility to chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Vaccine 29, 1339-1346.

Horino, T., Matsumoto, T., Ishikawa, H., et al., 2009. Interleukin-1 deficiency in combination with macrophage depletion increases susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. Microbiol Immunol 53, 502-511.

Imagawa, T., Nishikomori, R., Takada, H., et al., 2013. Safety and efficacy of canakinumab in Japanese patients with phenotypes of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome as established in the first open-label, phase-3 pivotal study (24-week results). Clin Exp Rheumatol 31, 302-309.

Juffermans, N.P., Florquin, S., Camoglio, L., et al., 2000. Interleukin-1 signaling is essential for host defense during murine pulmonary tuberculosis. J Infect Dis 182, 902-908.

Kullenberg, T., Lofqvist, M., Leinonen, M., et al., 2016. Long-term safety profile of anakinra in patients with severe cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. Rheumatology (Oxford) 55, 1499-1506.

Lachmann, H.J., Kone-Paut, I., Kuemmerle-Deschner, J.B., et al., 2009. Use of canakinumab in the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome. N Engl J Med 360, 2416-2425.

Lequerre, T., Quartier, P., Rosellini, D., et al., 2008. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) treatment in patients with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis or adult onset Still disease: preliminary experience in France. Ann Rheum Dis 67, 302-308.

Migkos, M.P., Somarakis, G.A., Markatseli, T.E., et al., 2015. Tuberculous pyomyositis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient treated with anakinra. Clin Exp Rheumatol 33, 734-736.

Schlesinger, N., Alten, R.E., Bardin, T., et al., 2012. Canakinumab for acute gouty arthritis in patients with limited treatment options: results from two randomised, multicentre, active-controlled, double-blind trials and their initial extensions. Ann Rheum Dis 71, 1839-1848.

Tian, T., Jin, M.Q., Dubin, K., 2017. IL-1R Type 1-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Impaired Host Immune Response against Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infection.  198, 4341-4351.

Yamada, H., Mizumo, S., Horai, R., et al., 2000. Protective role of interleukin-1 in mycobacterial infection in IL-1 alpha/beta double-knockout mice. Lab Invest 80, 759-767.

Yokota, S., Imagawa, T., Nishikomori, R., et al., 2017. Long-term safety and efficacy of canakinumab in cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome: results from an open-label, phase III pivotal study in Japanese patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 35 Suppl 108, 19-26.