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Relationship: 2070

Title

The title of the KER should clearly define the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream and which is downstream). Consequently all KER titles take the form “upstream KE leads to downstream KE”.  More help

Sustained tissue damage / macrophage activation/ porcupine-induced Wnt secretion leads to Proliferation/ beta-catenin activation

Upstream event
Upstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help
Downstream event
Downstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

This table is automatically generated upon addition of a KER to an AOP. All of the AOPs that are linked to this KER will automatically be listed in this subsection. Clicking on the name of the AOP in the table will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Chronic reactive oxygen species leading to human treatment-resistant gastric cancer adjacent High Moderate Shihori Tanabe (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Select one or more structured terms that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER. In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER. Authors can indicate the relevant taxa for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 30-31 and 37-38 of User Handbook) More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI

Sex Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant sex for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of the User Handbook). More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant life stage for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of User Handbook). More help
Term Evidence
All life stages High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provide a brief, descriptive summation of the KER. While the title itself is fairly descriptive, this section can provide details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves (see page 39 of the User Handbook). This description section can be viewed as providing the increased specificity in the nature of upstream perturbation (KEupstream) that leads to a particular downstream perturbation (KEdownstream), while allowing the KE descriptions to remain generalised so they can be linked to different AOPs. The description is also intended to provide a concise overview for readers who may want a brief summation, without needing to read through the detailed support for the relationship (covered below). Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs that are not part of this KER, other KERs or other AOPs. This will ensure that the KER is modular and can be used by other AOPs. More help

Secreted Wnt ligand stimulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, in which beta-catenin is activated. Wnt ligand binds to Frizzled receptor, which leads to GSK3beta inactivation. GSK3beta inactivation leads to beta-catenin dephosphorylation, which avoids the ubiquitination of the beta-catenin and stabilize the beta-catenin (Clevers & Nusse, 2012).

Evidence Supporting this KER

Assembly and description of the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP is an important step in the AOP development process that sets the stage for overall assessment of the AOP (see pages 49-56 of the User Handbook). To do this, biological plausibility, empirical support, and the current quantitative understanding of the KER are evaluated with regard to the predictive relationships/associations between defined pairs of KEs as a basis for considering WoE (page 55 of User Handbook). In addition, uncertainties and inconsistencies are considered. More help
Biological Plausibility
Define, in free text, the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream. What are the structural or functional relationships between the KEs? For example, there is a functional relationship between an enzyme’s activity and the product of a reaction it catalyses. Supporting references should be included. However, it is recognised that there may be cases where the biological relationship between two KEs is very well established, to the extent that it is widely accepted and consistently supported by so much literature that it is unnecessary and impractical to cite the relevant primary literature. Citation of review articles or other secondary sources, like text books, may be reasonable in such cases. The primary intent is to provide scientifically credible support for the structural and/or functional relationship between the pair of KEs if one is known. The description of biological plausibility can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured (see page 40 of the User Handbook for further information).   More help

Canonical Wnt pathway consists of Wnt, GSK3beta and beta-catenin cascade (Clevers & Nusse, 2012; Hatsell, Rowlands, Hiremath, & Cowin, 2003).

GSK3beta recruitment to LRP6 leads to form un-phosphorylated beta-catenin inducing the stabilization and translocation of the beta-catenin (MacDonald, Tamai, & He, 2009).

Stabilized beta-catenin accumulates in cytosol and translocates into the nucleus leading to beta-catenin activation (MacDonald et al., 2009).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
In addition to outlining the evidence supporting a particular linkage, it is also important to identify inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship. Additionally, while there are expected patterns of concordance that support a causal linkage between the KEs in the pair, it is also helpful to identify experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. Identification of uncertainties and inconsistencies contribute to evaluation of the overall WoE supporting the AOPs that contain a given KER and to the identification of research gaps that warrant investigation (seep pages 41-42 of the User Handbook).Given that AOPs are intended to support regulatory applications, AOP developers should focus on those inconsistencies or gaps that would have a direct bearing or impact on the confidence in the KER and its use as a basis for inference or extrapolation in a regulatory setting. Uncertainties that may be of academic interest but would have little impact on regulatory application don’t need to be described. In general, this section details evidence that may raise questions regarding the overall validity and predictive utility of the KER (including consideration of both biological plausibility and empirical support). It also contributes along with several other elements to the overall evaluation of the WoE for the KER (see Section 4 of the User Handbook).  More help

Some Wnt ligands bind to FZD, leading to Wnt/beta-catenin signaling inactivation. DVL, a positive regulator of Wnt signaling, has a controversial role to promote Wnt receptor degradation (Jiang et al., 2015). DVL-dependent regulation of FZD level is involved in mTORC1 signaling suppression via Wnt/beta-catenin signaling (Zeng et al., 2018)

GSK3beta phosphorylates LRP6 as well as remaining GSK3 beta phosphorylates beta-catenin which would be ubiquitinated and degradated (MacDonald et al., 2009).

Response-response Relationship
This subsection should be used to define sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs. In particular, information regarding the general form of the relationship (e.g., linear, exponential, sigmoidal, threshold, etc.) should be captured if possible. If there are specific mathematical functions or computational models relevant to the KER in question that have been defined, those should also be cited and/or described where possible, along with information concerning the approximate range of certainty with which the state of the KEdownstream can be predicted based on the measured state of the KEupstream (i.e., can it be predicted within a factor of two, or within three orders of magnitude?). For example, a regression equation may reasonably describe the response-response relationship between the two KERs, but that relationship may have only been validated/tested in a single species under steady state exposure conditions. Those types of details would be useful to capture.  More help

Wnt3 promotes proliferation and survival in HUVECs (Shen et al., 2018).

GSK3beta inhibition by 1 uM of SB216763 or 5 uM of BRD3731 results in the decreased phosphorylation and stabilization of beta-catenin (Stump et al., 2019). The level of beta-catenin is increased by the inhibition of GSK3beta kinase activity (Stump et al., 2019). GSK3beta inhibition by small interference RNA (siRNA) of GSK3beta results in the decreased phosphorylation and increased expression of beta-catenin (Stump et al., 2019).

Time-scale
This sub-section should be used to provide information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). This can be useful information both in terms of modelling the KER, as well as for analyzing the critical or dominant paths through an AOP network (e.g., identification of an AO that could kill an organism in a matter of hours will generally be of higher priority than other potential AOs that take weeks or months to develop). Identification of time-scale can also aid the assessment of temporal concordance. For example, for a KER that operates on a time-scale of days, measurement of both KEs after just hours of exposure in a short-term experiment could lead to incorrect conclusions regarding dose-response or temporal concordance if the time-scale of the upstream to downstream transition was not considered. More help

FZD7 enhances the activity of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling with the treatment of WNT3A for 1 to 6 hrs (Cao et al., 2017). The treatment with SB216763 or BRD3731, GSK3beta inhibitors, decreases phosphorylated beta-catenin and increased beta-catenin expression in 48 hours (Stump et al., 2019). The cells are treated with GSK3beta small interference RNA (siRNA) for 48 hours to silence the expression of GSK3beta, which results in the activation of beta-catenin pathway (Stump et al., 2019).

Known modulating factors
This sub-section presents information regarding modulating factors/variables known to alter the shape of the response-response function that describes the quantitative relationship between the two KEs (for example, an iodine deficient diet causes a significant increase in the slope of the relationship; a particular genotype doubles the sensitivity of KEdownstream to changes in KEupstream). Information on these known modulating factors should be listed in this subsection, along with relevant information regarding the manner in which the modulating factor can be expected to alter the relationship (if known). Note, this section should focus on those modulating factors for which solid evidence supported by relevant data and literature is available. It should NOT list all possible/plausible modulating factors. In this regard, it is useful to bear in mind that many risk assessments conducted through conventional apical guideline testing-based approaches generally consider few if any modulating factors. More help

FZD5 can activate WNT3A/beta-catenin signaling in a dose-dependent manner (Hua et al., 2018). The increase in FZD5 protein enhances cell response to WNT3A. (Hua et al., 2018). LRP5 can augment WNT3A/beta-catenin signaling in a dose-dependent manner (Hua et al., 2018). The binding of Wnt and FZD induce the formation of the protein complex with the Dvl, Axin, CK1 GSK3, beta-catenin and APC to induce the beta-catenin translocation into the nucleus (Clevers & Nusse, 2012).

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This subsection should define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits? In some cases where feedback processes are measurable and causally linked to the outcome, they should be represented as KEs. However, in most cases these features are expected to predominantly influence the shape of the response-response, time-course, behaviours between selected KEs. For example, if a feedback loop acts as compensatory mechanism that aims to restore homeostasis following initial perturbation of a KE, the feedback loop will directly shape the response-response relationship between the KERs. Given interest in formally identifying these positive or negative feedback, it is recommended that a graphical annotation (page 44) indicating a positive or negative feedback loop is involved in a particular upstream to downstream KE transition (KER) be added to the graphical representation, and that details be provided in this subsection of the KER description (see pages 44-45 of the User Handbook).  More help

Beta-catenin is required and sufficient for the sequestration of GSK3 in acidic cytoplasmic endosomes (Taelman et al., 2010). Beta-catenin, of which level increases in Wnt signaling, facilitates GSK3 sequestration leading to feed-forward loop formation (Taelman et al., 2010). The Wnt ligand is antagonized with secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) and Wnt inhibitory protein (WIF), both of which can bind Wnts and inhibit interactions between WNT and FZD (Bovolenta, Esteve, Ruiz, Cisneros, & Lopez-Rios, 2008; Clevers & Nusse, 2012). The Dickkopf 1 (DKK1) can disrupts Wnt-induced FZD-LRP6 complex formation (Clevers & Nusse, 2012; Ellwanger et al., 2008; Semenov, Zhang, & He, 2008).

Domain of Applicability

As for the KEs, there is also a free-text section of the KER description that the developer can use to explain his/her rationale for the structured terms selected with regard to taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability, or provide a more generalizable or nuanced description of the applicability domain than may be feasible using standardized terms. More help

GSK3-beta inhibition induced beta-catenin activation in human lung lymphatic endothelial cells (Homo sapiens) (Stump et al., 2019).

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description using the appropriate format. Ideally, the list of references should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (OECD, 2015). More help

Bovolenta, P., Esteve, P., Ruiz, J. M., Cisneros, E., & Lopez-Rios, J. (2008). Beyond Wnt inhibition: new functions of secreted Frizzled-related proteins in development and disease. J Cell Sci, 121(Pt 6), 737-746. doi:10.1242/jcs.026096

Cao, T. T., Xiang, D., Liu, B. L., Huang, T. X., Tan, B. B., Zeng, C. M., . . . Fu, L. (2017). FZD7 is a novel prognostic marker and promotes tumor metastasis via WNT and EMT signaling pathways in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Oncotarget, 8(39), 65957-65968. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.19586

Clevers, H., & Nusse, R. (2012). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and disease. Cell, 149(6), 1192-1205. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.012

Ellwanger, K., Saito, H., Clement-Lacroix, P., Maltry, N., Niedermeyer, J., Lee, W. K., . . . Niehrs, C. (2008). Targeted disruption of the Wnt regulator Kremen induces limb defects and high bone density. Mol Cell Biol, 28(15), 4875-4882. doi:10.1128/MCB.00222-08

Hatsell, S., Rowlands, T., Hiremath, M., & Cowin, P. (2003). Beta-catenin and Tcfs in mammary development and cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia, 8(2), 145-158. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14635791

Hua, Y., Yang, Y., Li, Q., He, X., Zhu, W., Wang, J., & Gan, X. (2018). Oligomerization of Frizzled and LRP5/6 protein initiates intracellular signaling for the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway. J Biol Chem, 293(51), 19710-19724. doi:10.1074/jbc.RA118.004434

Janda, C. Y., Waghray, D., Levin, A. M., Thomas, C., & Garcia, K. C. (2012). Structural basis of Wnt recognition by Frizzled. Science, 337(6090), 59-64. doi:10.1126/science.1222879

Jiang, X., Charlat, O., Zamponi, R., Yang, Y., & Cong, F. (2015). Dishevelled promotes Wnt receptor degradation through recruitment of ZNRF3/RNF43 E3 ubiquitin ligases. Mol Cell, 58(3), 522-533. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.03.015

MacDonald, B. T., Tamai, K., & He, X. (2009). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases. Dev Cell, 17(1), 9-26. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2009.06.016

Nile, A. H., Mukund, S., Stanger, K., Wang, W., & Hannoush, R. N. (2017). Unsaturated fatty acyl recognition by Frizzled receptors mediates dimerization upon Wnt ligand binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 114(16), 4147-4152. doi:10.1073/pnas.1618293114

Semenov, M. V., Zhang, X., & He, X. (2008). DKK1 antagonizes Wnt signaling without promotion of LRP6 internalization and degradation. J Biol Chem, 283(31), 21427-21432. doi:10.1074/jbc.M800014200

Shen, M., Bai, D., Liu, B., Lu, X., Hou, R., Zeng, C., . . . Yin, T. (2018). Dysregulated Txnip-ROS-Wnt axis contributes to the impaired ischemic heart repair in diabetic mice. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease, 1864(12), 3735-3745. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.09.029

Stump, B., Shrestha, S., Lamattina, A. M., Louis, P. H., Cho, W., Perrella, M. A., . . . El-Chemaly, S. (2019). Glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta inhibition induces lymphangiogenesis through beta-catenin-dependent and mTOR-independent pathways. PLoS One, 14(4), e0213831. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213831

Taelman, V. F., Dobrowolski, R., Plouhinec, J. L., Fuentealba, L. C., Vorwald, P. P., Gumper, I., . . . De Robertis, E. M. (2010). Wnt signaling requires sequestration of glycogen synthase kinase 3 inside multivesicular endosomes. Cell, 143(7), 1136-1148. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.11.034

Zeng, H., Lu, B., Zamponi, R., Yang, Z., Wetzel, K., Loureiro, J., . . . Cong, F. (2018). mTORC1 signaling suppresses Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through DVL-dependent regulation of Wnt receptor FZD level. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 115(44), E10362-E10369. doi:10.1073/pnas.1808575115