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Event: 1754

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Porcupine-induced Wnt secretion and Wnt signaling activation

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Porcupine-induced Wnt secretion and Wnt signaling activation
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Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Cell term
cell

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
organ

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
Wnt protein secretion protein-serine O-palmitoleoyltransferase porcupine increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Chronic ROS leading to human treatment-resistant gastric cancer KeyEvent Shihori Tanabe (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite EAGMST Under Review

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages Moderate

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Porcupine, which is a trans-membrane endoplasmic reticulum O-acyl transferase, is important for the secretion of Wnt ligands(Saha et al., 2016a). WNTs are secreted proteins that contain 22-24 conserved cysteine residues (Foulquier et al., 2018). The WNT molecules consist of molecular families including WNT1, WNT2, WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT4, WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7A, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10B, WNT11, and WNT16. (Clevers & Nusse, 2012; M. Katoh, 2001; Kusserow et al., 2005)

Wnt proteins consist of 350-400 amino acids (Saito-Diaz et al., 2013).

WNT ligands are known to trigger at least three different downstream signaling cascades including canonical WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway, non-canonical WNT/Ca2+ pathway, and planer cell polarity (PCP) pathway(De, 2011; Lai, Chien, & Moon, 2009; Willert & Nusse, 2012). WNTs bind to Frizzled proteins, which are seven-pass transmembrane receptors with an extracellular N-terminal cysteine-rich domain (Bhanot et al., 1996; Clevers, 2006). Wnt signaling begins with the binding of Wnt ligand towards the Frizzled receptors (Mohammed et al., 2016).

Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled (FZD) receptors which are seven transmembrane-domain protein receptors (Nile, Mukund, Stanger, Wang, & Hannoush, 2017). At least 10 FZD receptors are identified in human cells. FZD receptor is activated by Wnt ligand binding (MacDonald, Tamai, & He, 2009). 

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help
  • Secretion of WNT requires a number of other dedicated factors including the sortin receptor Wntless (WLS), which binds to Wnt and escorts it to the cell surface (Banziger et al., 2006; Ching & Nusse, 2006)
  • Wnt signaling is activated by the gene mutations of the signaling components (Ziv et al., 2017).
  • Wnt1, Wnt3a, and Wnt5a protein expression are measured by immunoblotting using antibodies for Wnt1, Wnt3a, and Wnt5a, respectively (J. Du et al., 2016; B. Wang et al., 2017).
  • WNT2, of which expression is detected by quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, induces EMT (Zhou et al., 2016).
  • Frizzled receptor protein level on the cell surface is measured by flow cytometry with pan-FZD antibody (Jiang et al., 2015; Zeng et al., 2018). DVL protein level is measured by immunoblotting with anti-DVL2 antibodies (Zeng et al., 2018).
  • Fzd mRNA level is measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Zeng et al., 2018).
  • The up-regulation of WNT ligand expression occurs in Homo sapiens (B. Wang et al., 2017).
  • The Wnt genes play an important role in the secretion from cells, glycosylation, and tight association with the cell surface and extracellular matrix in Drosophila melanogaster (Willert & Nusse, 2012).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Oligomerization of FZD and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6 (LRP5/6) activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in Homo sapiens (Hua et al., 2018).

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Banziger, C., Soldini, D., Schutt, C., Zipperlen, P., Hausmann, G., & Basler, K. (2006). Wntless, a conserved membrane protein dedicated to the secretion of Wnt proteins from signaling cells. Cell, 125(3), 509-522. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.049

Bhanot, P., Brink, M., Samos, C. H., Hsieh, J.-C., Wang, Y., Macke, J. P., . . . Nusse, R. (1996). A new member of the frizzled family from Drosophila functions as a Wingless receptor. Nature, 382, 225. doi:10.1038/382225a0

Ching, W., & Nusse, R. (2006). A dedicated Wnt secretion factor. Cell, 125(3), 432-433. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.04.018

Clevers, H. (2006). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in development and disease. Cell, 127(3), 469-480. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.10.018

Clevers, H., & Nusse, R. (2012). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and disease. Cell, 149(6), 1192-1205. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.012

De, A. (2011). Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway: a brief overview. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai), 43(10), 745-756. doi:10.1093/abbs/gmr079

Du, J., Zu, Y., Li, J., Du, S., Xu, Y., Zhang, L., . . . Yang, C. (2016). Extracellular matrix stiffness dictates Wnt expression through integrin pathway. Sci Rep, 6, 20395. doi:10.1038/srep20395

Foulquier, S., Daskalopoulos, E. P., Lluri, G., Hermans, K. C. M., Deb, A., & Blankesteijn, W. M. (2018). WNT Signaling in Cardiac and Vascular Disease. Pharmacol Rev, 70(1), 68-141. doi:10.1124/pr.117.013896

Hua, Y., Yang, Y., Li, Q., He, X., Zhu, W., Wang, J., & Gan, X. (2018). Oligomerization of Frizzled and LRP5/6 protein initiates intracellular signaling for the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway. J Biol Chem, 293(51), 19710-19724. doi:10.1074/jbc.RA118.004434

Jiang, X., Charlat, O., Zamponi, R., Yang, Y., & Cong, F. (2015). Dishevelled promotes Wnt receptor degradation through recruitment of ZNRF3/RNF43 E3 ubiquitin ligases. Mol Cell, 58(3), 522-533. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.03.015

Katoh, M. (2001). Molecular cloning and characterization of human WNT3. International journal of oncology, 19(5), 977-982. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11604997

Kusserow, A., Pang, K., Sturm, C., Hrouda, M., Lentfer, J., Schmidt, H. A., . . . Holstein, T. W. (2005). Unexpected complexity of the Wnt gene family in a sea anemone. Nature, 433(7022), 156-160. doi:10.1038/nature03158

Lai, S. L., Chien, A. J., & Moon, R. T. (2009). Wnt/Fz signaling and the cytoskeleton: potential roles in tumorigenesis. Cell Res, 19(5), 532-545. doi:10.1038/cr.2009.41

MacDonald, B. T., Tamai, K., & He, X. (2009). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases. Dev Cell, 17(1), 9-26. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2009.06.016

Mohammed, M. K., Shao, C., Wang, J., Wei, Q., Wang, X., Collier, Z., . . . Lee, M. J. (2016). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an ever-expanding role in stem cell self-renewal, tumorigenesis and cancer chemoresistance. Genes Dis, 3(1), 11-40. doi:10.1016/j.gendis.2015.12.004

Nile, A. H., Mukund, S., Stanger, K., Wang, W., & Hannoush, R. N. (2017). Unsaturated fatty acyl recognition by Frizzled receptors mediates dimerization upon Wnt ligand binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 114(16), 4147-4152. doi:10.1073/pnas.1618293114

Saha, S., Aranda, E., Hayakawa, Y., Bhanja, P., Atay, S., Brodin, N. P., . . . Pollard, J. W. (2016). Macrophage-derived extracellular vesicle-packaged WNTs rescue intestinal stem cells and enhance survival after radiation injury. Nature Communications, 7(1), 13096. doi:10.1038/ncomms13096

Saito-Diaz, K., Chen, T. W., Wang, X., Thorne, C. A., Wallace, H. A., Page-McCaw, A., & Lee, E. (2013). The way Wnt works: components and mechanism. Growth Factors, 31(1), 1-31. doi:10.3109/08977194.2012.752737

Wang, B., Tang, Z., Gong, H., Zhu, L., & Liu, X. (2017). Wnt5a promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Biosci Rep, 37(6). doi:10.1042/BSR20171092

Willert, K., & Nusse, R. (2012). Wnt proteins. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, 4(9), a007864. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a007864

Zeng, H., Lu, B., Zamponi, R., Yang, Z., Wetzel, K., Loureiro, J., . . . Cong, F. (2018). mTORC1 signaling suppresses Wnt/beta-catenin signaling through DVL-dependent regulation of Wnt receptor FZD level. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 115(44), E10362-E10369. doi:10.1073/pnas.1808575115

Zhou, Y., Huang, Y., Cao, X., Xu, J., Zhang, L., Wang, J., . . . Zheng, M. (2016). WNT2 Promotes Cervical Carcinoma Metastasis and Induction of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. PLoS One, 11(8), e0160414. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160414

Ziv, E., Yarmohammadi, H., Boas, F. E., Petre, E. N., Brown, K. T., Solomon, S. B., . . . Erinjeri, J. P. (2017). Gene Signature Associated with Upregulation of the Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling Pathway Predicts Tumor Response to Transarterial Embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol, 28(3), 349-355 e341. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2016.11.004