To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KER:2133
Antagonism, Androgen receptor leads to nipple retention, increased
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Androgen receptor (AR) antagonism leading to nipple retention (NR) in male (mammalian) offspring||non-adjacent||Moderate||Low||Terje Svingen (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Several chemicals can antagonize the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro, resulting in decreased AR activation. Decreased AR activation can lead to incomplete reproductive development in males, which can be expressed in several ways. One endpoint affected is areola/nipple retention (NR), which in vivo studies have shown to be linked to suppressed AR activation. NR in rat and mouse toxicity studies is considered an adverse effect (i.e., an AO).
Evidence Collection Strategy
Strategi was described by Pedersen et al (2022): A semi-systematic literature search was conducted during March 2022 in the peer-reviewed databases PubMed and Web of Science, using the search terms “(Nipple) AND (retain* OR retention) AND (androgen)” as well as “(Androgen receptor OR AR) AND (active*) AND (nipple OR areolae) AND (retain* OR retention)”. These searches resulted in 138 papers in total. Upon removal of duplicates, papers were screened according to title, abstract and ultimately full text based on pre-defined inclusion criteria. In vivo studies were included if (i) the study was carried out in mice or rats, (ii) NR in males was investigated as an endpoint, (iii) AR antagonism was the suspected mechanism of action and (iv) anti-androgenic effects of single substance exposures (i.e., not studies on chemical mixtures) were investigated. In vitro studies were included if they contained mechanistic information on AR inhibition by chemical stressors.
Evidence Supporting this KER
The biological plausibility of a link between decreased AR activation and increased NR in male rats is high. The relationship is supported by numerous studies showing that several potent AR antagonists in vitro induce NR in vivo. However, in the literature review conducted for this KER, no studies in mice were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. The present KER is hence exclusively a description of the situation in rats, although it is believed that the link also exists in mice.
The AR is activated through binding of either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the latter having the highest affinity for the AR. Upon binding, the AR translocates to the target cell nucleus where it acts as a transcription factor (Albert, 2018).
NT has been shown to be more dependent on DHT-signaling, which suggests that chemicals inducing increased NR also have a higher affinity for the AR than DHT in order to outcompete DHT for AR binding, although supra-high doses of chemicals with lower AR affinity could be speculated to also outcompete T or DHT. The general principle of higher affinity, however, has been confirmed by in vitro studies (Gray et al., 2019; Hass et al., 2012; McIntyre et al., 2000).
Table 2 lists chemical stressors shown to antagonize the AR in vitro as well as causing NR in male rat offspring in vivo. Additional information from the in vivo studies, including the animal species and strain, as well as the doses tested, the dosing period and the time of measurement of NR are specified in this table. The lowest dose yielding a significant increase of retained nipples in male rat pups is defined as the LOAEL. Conversely, the NOAEL represents the highest tested dose yielding no significant increase in NR. Note that the given NOAEL and LOAEL values are highly dependent on study design. Significant values are marked with an asterisk.
Table 3 shows a list of stressors shown to have AR antagonistic properties in vitro or in other in vivo studies, but for which the doses tested in vivo did not produce a significant effect on NR. In this list, the lowest tested dose is reported, and the NOAEL presents the highest dose tested which produced no statistically significant effect on NR. Apart from the NOAEL, the information given in Table 3 is identical to Table 2.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
A major challenge with NR as a biomarker is the subjectivity of the measure. In juvenile rat pups, nipples are only present as areolae, i.e., dark shadows with or without a nipple bud. This means that the experience of the personnel assessing the presence and number of areolae/nipples can influence the results. Furthermore, the results are likely prone to larger variation if several assessors are used to record NR within the same study. To minimize these sources of uncertainty, assessors must be trained to recognize areolae and not look for fully developed nipples. Moreover, the number of assessors should be limited to one or two, and they should always be blinded to exposure groups.
Another factor that may affect NR results is the age of the rat pups at the time of assessment. OECD guidelines have standardized the time for measuring occurrence of NR to be optimal at PD 12 or 13, when they are visible in female littermates (OECD, 2013). However, assessment of permanent NR is not included in any international guidelines. Hence, if NR is measured in older offspring, the time of measurement is not consistent between studies and varies between PD 20 and PD 100. Thus, conclusions on whether NR is permanent or not may differ based on study design. This distinction between a transient and a permanent effect is important from a regulatory perspective, since only a permanent effect will be categorized as a malformation according to OECD guidance document 43 (OECD, 2008).
Known modulating factors
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
The quantitative understanding of the relationship between decreased AR activity and NR is challenged by the fact that the potency of AR antagonism in vitro is not proportional to the magnitude of NR observed in vivo (Gray et al., 2019). Hence, predicting in vivo effects based on in vitro data is not possible. However, in vitro studies can give indications of which chemicals might exhibit anti-androgenic effects in vivo and should be subject to further testing (Hass et al., 2012). Development of more representative in vitro models is necessary if in vivo tests are to be phased out entirely.
No response-response relationship has been identified.
NR manifest in juvenile male rat pup offspring in response to reduced androgen signaling, e.g. resulting from exposure to an anti-androgenic chemical stressor during fetal development. Developmental sensitivity during fetal development is highest during the so-called male masculinization programming window (MPW) which in rats is between gestational day (GD) 15 and 19 (Welsh et al., 2008).
A study in which pregnant rat dams were exposed to the AR antagonist vinclozolin for two-day periods during gestation showed that GD 16–17 was the most sensitive period for increased NR in male offspring (Wolf et al., 2000). A similar study using di-n-butyl phthalate (reduces testosterone levels) also showed that GD 16–17 was the most sensitive period for increased NR in male rats (Carruthers & Foster, 2005). However, to determine if other chemical stressors also have the highest antagonistic potential towards the AR during GD 16-17, further studies with a similar design would be informative.
NR can only be recorded when pups are old enough to display them, yet before excessive fur has developed. Hence, the most accurate results can be obtained from assessing the number of nipples on PD 12–14 depending on rat strain and the time of female littermates displaying nipples (OECD, 2013).
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
No feedback loops that could influence the KER have been identified.
Domain of Applicability
Alapi, E. M., & Fischer, J. (2006). Table of Selected Analogue Classes. In Analogue-based Drug Discovery (pp. 441–552). Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. https://doi.org/10.1002/3527608001.ch23
Albert, O. (2018). Antiandrogens. In Encyclopedia of Reproduction (Vol. 1, pp. 594–601). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.64380-5
Barlow, N. J., McIntyre, B. S., & Foster, P. M. D. (2004). Male Reproductive Tract Lesions at 6, 12, and 18 Months of Age Following in Utero Exposure to Di(n-butyl) Phthalate. Toxicologic Pathology, 32(1), 79–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/01926230490265894
Bowman, C. J., Barlow, N. J., Turner, K. J., Wallace, D. G., & Foster, P. M. D. (2003). Effects of in utero exposure to finasteride on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male rat. Toxicological Sciences, 74(2), 393–406. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfg128
Carruthers, C. M., & Foster, P. M. D. (2005). Critical window of male reproductive tract development in rats following gestational exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate. Birth Defects Research (Part B) Developmental and Reproductive Research, 74(3), 277–285. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.20050
Christiansen, S., Axelstad, M., Scholze, M., Johansson, H.K.L., Hass, U., Mandrup, K., Frandsen, H.L., Frederiksen, H., Isling, L.K., Boberg, J. (2020). Grouping of endocrine disrupting chemicals for mixture risk assessment – Evidence from a rat study. Environ Int, 142, 105870. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105870
Christiansen, S., Boberg, J., Axelstad, M., Dalgaard, M., Vinggaard, A. M., Metzdorff, S. B., & Hass, U. (2010). Low-dose perinatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces anti-androgenic effects in male rats. Reproductive Toxicology, 30(2), 313–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.04.005
Christiansen, S., Scholze, M., Axelstad, M., Boberg, J., Kortenkamp, A., & Hass, U. (2008). Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat. International Journal of Andrology, 31(2), 241–248. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2008.00866.x
Christiansen, S., Scholze, M., Dalgaard, M., Vinggaard, A., Axelstad, M., Kortenkamp, A., & Hass, U. (2009). Synergistic disruption of external male sex organ development by a mixture of four antiandrogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(12), 1839–1846. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900689
Clewell, R. A., Thomas, A., Willson, G., Creasy, D. M., & Andersen, M. E. (2013). A dose response study to assess effects after dietary administration of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) in gestation and lactation on male rat sexual development. Reproductive Toxicology, 35(1), 70–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.07.008
Conley JM, Lambright CS, Evans N, Cardon M, Furr J, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr (2018). Mixed "Antiandrogenic" Chemicals at Low Individual Doses Produce Reproductive Tract Malformations in the Male Rat. Toxicol Sci. 164(1), 166-178. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfy069
Conley JM, Lambright CS, Evans N, Cardon M, Medlock-Kakaley E, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr. (2021). A mixture of 15 phthalates and pesticides below individual chemical no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) produces reproductive tract malformations in the male rat. Environ Int. 156, 106615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106615
Davey, R. A., & Grossmann, M. (2016). Androgen Receptor Structure, Function and Biology: From Bench to Bedside. The Clinical Biochemist. Reviews, 37(1), 3–15.
Draskau, M. K., Ballegaard, A. S. R., Ramhøj, L., Bowles, J., Svingen, T., & Spiller, C. M. (2022). AOP Key Event Relationship report: Linking decreased retinoic acid levels with disrupted meiosis in developing oocytes. Current Research in Toxicology, 3(100069). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crtox.2022.100069
Draskau, M. K., Boberg, J., Taxvig, C., Pedersen, M., Frandsen, H. L., Christiansen, S., & Svingen, T. (2019). In vitro and in vivo endocrine disrupting effects of the azole fungicides triticonazole and flusilazole. Environmental Pollution, 255, 113309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113309
Foster, P. M. D., & Harris, M. W. (2005). Changes in androgen-mediated reproductive development in male rat offspring following exposure to a single oral dose of flutamide at different gestational ages. Toxicological Sciences, 85(2), 1024–1032. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfi159
Fussell, K. C., Schneider, S., Buesen, R., Groeters, S., Strauss, V., Melching-Kollmuss, S., & van Ravenzwaay, B. (2015). Investigations of putative reproductive toxicity of low-dose exposures to flutamide in Wistar rats. Archives of Toxicology, 89(12), 2385–2402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-015-1622-6
Gray, L. E., Furr, J. R., Conley, J. M., Lambright, C. S., Evans, N., Cardon, M. C., Wilson, V. S., Foster, P. M., & Hartig, P. C. (2019). A Conflicted Tale of Two Novel AR Antagonists In Vitro and In Vivo: Pyrifluquinazon Versus Bisphenol C. Toxicological Sciences, 168(2), 632–643. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfz010
Gray, L. E., Ostby, J., Furr, J., Price, M., Veeramachaneni, D. N. R., & Parks, L. (2000). Perinatal Exposure to the Phtalates DEHP, BBP, and DINP, but Not DEP, DMP, or DOTP, Alters Sexual Differentiation of the Male Rat. Toxicological Sciences, 58, 350–365. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/58.2.350
Hass, U., Boberg, J., Christiansen, S., Jacobsen, P. R., Vinggaard, A. M., Taxvig, C., Poulsen, M. E., Herrmann, S. S., Jensen, B. H., Petersen, A., Clemmensen, L. H., & Axelstad, M. (2012). Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides. Reproductive Toxicology, 34(2), 261–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.05.090
Hass, U., Scholze, M., Christiansen, S., Dalgaard, M., Vinggaard, A. M., Axelstad, M., Metzdorff, S. B., & Kortenkamp, A. (2007). Combined exposure to anti-androgens exacerbates disruption of sexual differentiation in the rat. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(suppl 1), 122–128. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9360
Heemers, H. v., & Tindall, D. J. (2007). Androgen Receptor (AR) Coregulators: A Diversity of Functions Converging on and Regulating the AR Transcriptional Complex. Endocrine Reviews, 28(7), 778–808. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2007-0019
Heinlein, C. A., & Chang, C. (2002). The Roles of Androgen Receptors and Androgen-Binding Proteins in Nongenomic Androgen Actions. Molecular Endocrinology, 16(10), 2181–2187. https://doi.org/10.1210/me.2002-0070
Hellwig, J., van Ravenzwaay, B., Mayer, M., & Gembardt, C. (2000). Pre- and postnatal oral toxicity of vinclozolin in Wistar and Long-Evans rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 32(1), 42–50. https://doi.org/10.1006/rtph.2000.1400
Hotchkiss, A. K., Parks-Saldutti, L. G., Ostby, J. S., Lambright, C., Furr, J., Vandenbergh, J. G., & Gray, L. E. (2004). A mixture of the “antiandrogens” linuron and butyl benzyl phthalate alters sexual differentiation of the male rat in a cumulative fashion. Biology of Reproduction, 71(6), 1852–1861. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.104.031674
Howdeshell KL, Hotchkiss AK, Gray LE Jr (2017). Cumulative effects of antiandrogenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 220(2 Pt A), 179-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.11.007
Huliganga, E., Marchetti, F., O’Brien, J. M., Chauhan, V., & Yauk, C. L. (2022). A Case Study on Integrating a New Key Event Into an Existing Adverse Outcome Pathway on Oxidative DNA Damage: Challenges and Approaches in a Data-Rich Area. Frontiers in Toxicology, 4(827328). https://doi.org/10.3389/ftox.2022.827328
Imperato-McGinley, J., Binienda, Z., Gedney, J., & Vaughan, E. D. (1986). Nipple Differentiation in Fetal Male Rats Treated with an Inhibitor of the Enzyme 5α-Reductase: Definition of a Selective Role for Dihydrotestosterone. Endocrinology, 118(1), 132–137. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo-118-1-132
Imperato-McGinley, J., & Gautier, T. (1986). Inherited 5α-reductase deficiency in man. Trends in Genetics, 2, 130–133. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9525(86)90202-7
Imperato-McGinley, J., Sanchez, R. S., Spencer, J. R., Yee, B., & Darracott Vaughan, E. (1992). Comparison of the Effects of the 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride and the Antiandrogen Flutamide on Prostate and Genital Differentiation: Dose-Response Studies. Endocrinology, 131(3), 1149–1156. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.131.3.1324152
Jarfelt, K., Dalgaard, M., Hass, U., Borch, J., Jacobsen, H., & Ladefoged, O. (2005). Antiandrogenic effects in male rats perinatally exposed to a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. Reproductive Toxicology, 19(4), 505–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2004.11.005
Kita, D. H., Meyer, K. B., Venturelli, A. C., Adams, R., Machado, D. L. B., Morais, R. N., Swan, S. H., Gennings, C., & Martino-Andrade, A. J. (2016). Manipulation of pre and postnatal androgen environments and anogenital distance in rats. Toxicology, 368–369, 152–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2016.08.021
Kjærstad, M. B., Taxvig, C., Nellemann, C., Vinggaard, A. M., & Andersen, H. R. (2010). Endocrine disrupting effects in vitro of conazole antifungals used as pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Reproductive Toxicology, 30(4), 573–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.07.009
Körner, W., Vinggaard, A. M., Térouanne, B., Ma, R., Wieloch, C., Schlumpf, M., Sultan, C., & Soto, A. M. (2004). Interlaboratory comparison of four in vitro assays for assessing androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of environmental chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(6), 695–702. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.112-1241964
Kratochwil, K. (1977). Development and Loss of Androgen Responsiveness in the Embryonic Rudiment of the Mouse Mammary Gland. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, 61, 358–365.
Kratochwil, K., & Schwartz, P. (1976). Tissue interaction in androgen response of embryonic mammary rudiment of mouse: Identification of target tissue for testosterone (testicular feminization/sexual differentiation/epithelio-mesenchymal interaction). Cell Biology, 73(11), 4041–4044.
Lee, S.-H., Hong, K. Y., Seo, H., Lee, H.-S., & Park, Y. (2021). Mechanistic insight into human androgen receptor-mediated endocrine-disrupting potentials by a stable bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based dimerization assay. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 349, 109655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109655
Loeffler, I. K., & Peterson, R. E. (1999). Interactive Effects of TCDD and p,p’-DDE on Male Reproductive Tract Development in in Utero and Lactationally Exposed Rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 154(1), 28–39. Https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1998.8572
Lu, S.-Y., Kuo, M.-L., Liao, J.-W., Hwang, J.-S., & Ueng, T.-H. (2006). Antagonistic and Synergistic Effects of Carbendazim and Flutamide Exposures In Utero on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Rats. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 14(2), 120–132. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.2491
MacLean, H. E., Chu, S., Warne, G. L., & Zajac, J. D. (1993). Related individuals with different androgen receptor gene deletions. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 91(3), 1123–1128. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI116271
MacLeod, D. J., Sharpe, R. M., Welsh, M., Fisken, M., Scott, H. M., Hutchison, G. R., Drake, A. J., & van den Driesche, S. (2010). Androgen action in the masculinization programming window and development of male reproductive organs. International Journal of Andrology, 33(2), 279–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01005.x
Martínez, A. G., Pardo, B., Gámez, R., Mas, R., Noa, M., Marrero, G., Valle, M., García, H., Curveco, D., Mendoza, N., & Goicochea, E. (2011). Effects of in utero exposure to D-004, a lipid extract from roystonea regia fruits, in the male rat: A comparison with finasteride. Journal of Medicinal Food, 14(12), 1663–1669. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2010.0279
Mayer, J. A., Foley, J., de La Cruz, D., Chuong, C. M., & Widelitz, R. (2008). Conversion of the nipple to hair-bearing epithelia by lowering bone morphogenetic protein pathway activity at the dermal-epidermal interface. American Journal of Pathology, 173(5), 1339–1348. https://doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2008.070920
McIntyre, B. S., Barlow, N. J., & Foster, P. M. D. (2001). Androgen-Mediated Development in Male Rat Offspring Exposed to Flutamide in Utero: Permanence and Correlation of Early Postnatal Changes in Anogenital Distance and Nipple Retention with Malformations in Androgen-Dependent Tissues. Toxicological Sciences, 62(2), 236–249. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/62.2.236
Mcintyre, B. S., Barlow, N. J., & Foster, P. M. D. (2002). Male Rats Exposed to Linuron in Utero Exhibit Permanent Changes in Anogenital Distance, Nipple Retention, and Epididymal Malformations That Result in Subsequent Testicular Atrophy. Toxicological Sciences, 65(1), 62–70. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/65.1.62
McIntyre, B. S., Barlow, N. J., Wallace, D. G., Maness, S. C., Gaido, K. W., & Foster, P. M. D. (2000). Effects of in utero exposure to linuron on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male Crl:CD(SD)BR rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 167(2), 87–99. https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.2000.8998
Melching-Kollmuss, S., Fussell, K. C., Schneider, S., Buesen, R., Groeters, S., Strauss, V., & van Ravenzwaay, B. (2017). Comparing effect levels of regulatory studies with endpoints derived in targeted anti-androgenic studies: example prochloraz. Archives of Toxicology, 91(1), 143–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-016-1678-y
Miyata, K., Yabushita, S., Sukata, T., Sano, M., Yoshino, H., Nakanishi, T., Okuno, Y., & Matsuo, M. (2002). Effects of Perinatal Exposure to Flutamide on Sex Hormones and Androgen-Dependent Organs in F1 Male Rats. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 27(1), 19–33. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.27.19
Moore, R. W., Rudy, T. A., Lin, T.-M., Ko, K., & Peterson, R. E. (2001). Abnormalities of Sexual Development in Male Rats with in Utero and Lactational Exposure to the Antiandrogenic Plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(3), 229–237. http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2001/109p229-237moore/abstract.html
Mylchreest, E., Sar, M., Cattley, R. C., & Foster, P. M. D. (1999). Disruption of Androgen-Regulated Male Reproductive Development by Di(n-Butyl) Phthalate during Late Gestation in Rats Is Different from Flutamide. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 27(1), 81–95. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1999.8643
Noriega, N. C., Ostby, J., Lambright, C., Wilson, V. S., & Gray, L. E. (2005). Late gestational exposure to the fungicide prochloraz delays the onset of parturition and causes reproductive malformations in male but not female rat offspring. Biology of Reproduction, 72(6), 1324–1335. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.104.031385
OECD. (2008). Guidance document 43 on mammalian reproductive toxicity testing and assessment. Environment, Health and Safety Publications, 16(43).
OECD. (2009). Test Guideline 441: Hershberger Bioassay in Rats: A Short-term Screening Assay for (Anti)Androgenic Properties. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 441.
OECD. (2013). Guidance document supporting OECD test guideline 443 on the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity test. Environment, Health and Safety Publications, 10(151).
OECD. (2016a). Test Guideline 421: Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 421. http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions/
OECD. (2016b). Test Guideline 422: Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 422. http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions/
OECD. (2018). Test Guideline 443: Extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 443. http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions/
OECD. (2020). Test Guideline 458: Stably Transfected Human Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay for Detection of Androgenic Agonist and Antagonist Activity of Chemicals. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, 458. http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions/
Okahashi, N., Sano, M., Miyata, K., Tamano, S., Higuchi, H., Kamita, Y., & Seki, T. (2005). Lack of evidence for endocrine disrupting effects in rats exposed to fenitrothion in utero and from weaning to maturation. Toxicology, 206(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2004.04.020
Ostby, J., Monosson, E., Kelce, W. R., & Earl Gray, L. J. (1999). Environmental antiandrogens: low doses of the fungicide vinclozolin alter sexual differentiation of the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 15, 48–64. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/074823379901500106
Panagiotou, E. M., Draskau, M. K., Li, T., Hirschberg, A., Svingen, T., & Damdimopoulou, P. (2022). AOP key event relationship report: Linking decreased androgen receptor activation with decreased granulosa cell proliferation of gonadotropin-independent follicles. Reproductive Toxicology, 112, 136-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2022.07.004
Pedersen, E. B., Christiansen, S., & Svingen, T. (2022). AOP key event relationship report: Linking androgen receptor antagonism with nipple retention. Current Research in Toxicology, 3, 100085. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crtox.2022.100085
Rana, K., Davey, R., & Zajac, J. (2014). Human androgen deficiency: insights gained from androgen receptor knockout mouse models. Asian Journal of Andrology, 16(2), 169. https://doi.org/10.4103/1008-682X.122590
Rider CV, Furr JR, Wilson VS, Gray LE Jr (2010). Cumulative effects of in utero administration of mixtures of reproductive toxicants that disrupt common target tissues via diverse mechanisms of toxicity. Int J Androl. 33(2), 443-62. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01049.x
Saillenfait, A. M., Sabaté, J. P., & Gallissot, F. (2008). Diisobutyl phthalate impairs the androgen-dependent reproductive development of the male rat. Reproductive Toxicology, 26(2), 107–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.07.006
Saillenfait, A. M., Sabaté, J. P., & Gallissot, F. (2009). Effects of in utero exposure to di-n-hexyl phthalate on the reproductive development of the male rat. Reproductive Toxicology, 28(4), 468–476. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.06.013
Satoh, K., Ohyama, K., Aoki, N., Iida, M., & Nagai, F. (2004). Study on anti-androgenic effects of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and their derivatives using cells stably transfected with human androgen receptor, AR-EcoScreen. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(6), 983–993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.02.011
Schneider, S., Kaufmann, W., Strauss, V., & van Ravenzwaay, B. (2011). Vinclozolin: A feasibility and sensitivity study of the ILSI-HESI F1-extended one-generation rat reproduction protocol. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 59(1), 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.09.010
Schreiber, E., Garcia, T., González, N., Esplugas, R., Sharma, R. P., Torrente, M., Kumar, V., Bovee, T., Katsanou, E. S., Machera, K., Domingo, J. L., & Gómez, M. (2020). Maternal exposure to mixtures of dienestrol, linuron and flutamide. Part I: Feminization effects on male rat offspring. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 139(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111256
Schwartz, C. L., Christiansen, S., Hass, U., Ramhøj, L., Axelstad, M., Löbl, N. M., & Svingen, T. (2021). On the Use and Interpretation of Areola/Nipple Retention as a Biomarker for Anti-androgenic Effects in Rat Toxicity Studies. Frontiers in Toxicology, 3. https://doi.org/10.3389/ftox.2021.730752
Schwartz, C. L., Christiansen, S., Vinggaard, A. M., Axelstad, M., Hass, U., & Svingen, T. (2019). Anogenital distance as a toxicological or clinical marker for fetal androgen action and risk for reproductive disorders. Archives of Toxicology, 93(2), 253–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2350-5
Sonneveld, E., Jansen, H. J., Riteco, J. A. C., Brouwer, A., & van der Burg, B. (2005). Development of Androgen- and Estrogen-Responsive Bioassays, Members of a Panel of Human Cell Line-Based Highly Selective Steroid-Responsive Bioassays. Toxicological Sciences, 83(1), 136–148. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfi005
Svingen, T., Villeneuve, D. L., Knapen, D., Panagiotou, E. M., Draskau, M. K., Damdimopoulou, P., & O’Brien, J. M. (2021). A Pragmatic Approach to Adverse Outcome Pathway Development and Evaluation. Toxicological Sciences, 184(2), 183–190. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfab113
Taxvig, C., Hass, U., Axelstad, M., Dalgaard, M., Boberg, J., Andeasen, H. R., & Vinggaard, A. M. (2007). Endocrine-disrupting activities In Vivo of the fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole. Toxicological Sciences, 100(2), 464–473. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm227
Turner, K. J., Barlow, N. J., Struve, M. F., Wallace, D. G., Gaido, K. W., Dorman, D. C., & Foster, P. M. D. (2002). Effects of in Utero Exposure to the Organophosphate Insecticide Fenitrothion on Androgen-Dependent Reproductive Development in the Crl:CD(SD)BR Rat. Toxicological Sciences, 68(1), 174–183. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/68.1.174
van der Burg, B., Winter, R., Man, H., Vangenechten, C., Berckmans, P., Weimer, M., Witters, H., & van der Linden, S. (2010). Optimization and prevalidation of the in vitro AR CALUX method to test androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of compounds. Reproductive Toxicology, 30(1), 18–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.04.012
Vinggaard, A. M., Christiansen, S., Laier, P., Poulsen, M. E., Breinholt, V., Jarfelt, K., Jacobsen, H., Dalgaard, M., Nellemann, C., & Hass, U. (2005). Perinatal exposure to the fungicide prochloraz feminizes the male rat offspring. Toxicological Sciences, 85(2), 886–897. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfi150
Vinggaard, A. M., Hass, U., Dalgaard, M., Andersen, H. R., Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E., Christiansen, S., Laier, P., Poulsen, M. E., McLachlan, J., Main, K. M., Søeborg, T., & Foster, P. (2006). Prochloraz: An imidazole fungicide with multiple mechanisms of action. International Journal of Andrology, 29(1), 186–192. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2005.00604.x
Vinggaard, A. M., Niemelä, J., Wedebye, E. B., & Jensen, G. E. (2008). Screening of 397 Chemicals and Development of a Quantitative Structure−Activity Relationship Model for Androgen Receptor Antagonism. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 21(4), 813–823. https://doi.org/10.1021/tx7002382
Walters, K. A., Simanainen, U., & Handelsman, D. J. (2010). Molecular insights into androgen actions in male and female reproductive function from androgen receptor knockout models. Human Reproduction Update, 16(5), 543–558. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmq003
Welsh, M., Saunders, P. T. K., Fisken, M., Scott, H. M., Hutchison, G. R., Smith, L. B., & Sharpe, R. M. (2008). Identification in rats of a programming window for reproductive tract masculinization, disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 118(4), 1479–1490. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI34241
Wilson, V.S., Bobseine, K., Earl Gray Jr, L. (2004), Development and Characterization of a Cell Line That Stably Expresses an Estrogen-Responsive Luciferase Reporter for the Detection of Estrogen Receptor Agonist and Antagonists. Toxicological Sciences, 81, 69-77. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfh180
Wolf, C. J., LeBlanc, G. A., & Gray, L. E. (2004). Interactive effects of vinclozolin and testosterone propionate on pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the male and female SD rat. Toxicological Sciences, 78(1), 135–143. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfh018
Wolf, Lambright, C., Mann, P., Price, M., Cooper, R. L., Ostby, J., & Earl Gray, L. J. (1999). Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p,p-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl-and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 15(2), 94–118. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/074823379901500109
Wolf, Leblanc, G. A., Ostby, J. S., Gray, L. E., & Branch, E. (2000). Characterization of the Period of Sensitivity of Fetal Male Sexual Development to Vinclozolin. Toxicological Sciences, 55(1), 152–161. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/55.1.152
Yamasaki, K., Okuda, H., Takeuchi, T., & Minobe, Y. (2009). Effects of in utero through lactational exposure to dicyclohexyl phthalate and p,p′-DDE in Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology Letters, 189(1), 14–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.04.023
You, P.-D., Casanova, L., Archibeque-Engle, M., Sar, S., Fan, M., Heck, L.-Q. A., & D’a, H. (1998). Impaired Male Sexual Development in Perinatal Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans Hooded Rats Exposed in Utero and Lactationally to p,p’-DDE. Toxicol. Sci, 45, 162–173. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/45.2.162