To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KER:2231
Reduced, Hearing leads to Increased Mortality
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Repression of Gbx2 expression leads to defects in developing inner ear and consequently to increased mortality||adjacent||High||High||Vid Modic (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||Low|
Key Event Relationship Description
Impaired hearing could result in an impact on ecologically relevant endpoint, such as predator avoidance and prey capture. Therefore, it can be assumed that an affect on hearing could reduce young of year survival.
Evidence Supporting this KER
- In birds, acoustic signals play key roles in territory defense and mate attraction (Slabbekoorn and Ripmeester, 2008).
Roles of Acoustic signaling in fish (reviewed by Kasumayan 2009):
- Reproductive isolation - among fish capable of generating sound, sound emission during spawning is the most prominent life stage during which acoustic signaling occurs. Includes mate attraction, courtship, establishment of territory.
- Defensive sounds - fright and stress, alert conspecifics to potential threats.
- Organization of group/aggregative behaviors
- Feeding behaviors - in many fish conditioned reflex to the sounds of conspecifics feeding can be formed and cause orientation or attraction of fish toward their source, particularly in combination with corresponding visual stimuli and odors.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
- Kasumayan AO. 2009. Acoustic signaling in fish. J. Ichthyology. 49:963-1020.
- SLABBEKOORN, H. and RIPMEESTER, E. A. P. (2008), Birdsong and anthropogenic noise: implications and applications for conservation. Molecular Ecology, 17: 72–83. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03487.x