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Recruitment of inflammatory cells leads to Hyperinflammation
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Decreased fibrinolysis and activated bradykinin system leading to hyperinflammation||adjacent||Penny Nymark (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
The recruitment of proinflammatory cells occurs as a result of proinflammatory mediator signaling, recruiting the cells, such as monocytes which can differentiate into different macrophage types, to clear out invading toxic pathogens. However, when invading toxic pathogens are not properly cleared out and pro-inflammatory mediators are not controlled, the proinflammatory cells persist, causing a positive feedback loop leading to a dysregulated para-inflammation, which is responsible for chronic inflammation conditions (Medzhitov et al). This persistence causes over-activated proinflammatory macrophages, recruitment of neutrophils, and mass levels of proinflammatory cytokines (Medzhitov et al). Hyperinflammation properties include higher levels of inflammatory markers in blood (CRP, ferritin, and D- dimers), increased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, and increased proinflammatory cytokines.
In COVID-19 patients, monocytes are derived into pro-inflammatory macrophages as a result of SARS-COV-2 infection (Merad et al). Pro-inflammatory macrophages along with neutrophils and T-cells are recruited into the lung epithelium and exacerbate inflammation by establishing the proinflammatory feedback loop that persists and causes the hyperinflammatory state (Gustine et al). Hyperinflammation in COVID-19 is also triggered by pyroptosis and tissue damage (reviewed in Tan et al. 2021 https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.742941). SARS-COV-2 activates Gasdermin D (GSDMD), a key trigger of pyroptosis in pro-inflammatory macrophages. When pyroptosis causes cell death in these macrophages, it releases mass amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, ROS, and LDH, leading to hyperinflammation (Zhang et al). A number of so called alarmins have been associated with the evolution towards hyperinflammation. Alarmins are a family of immunomodulatory proteins that act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and recruit and activate various immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, lymphoid cells and myeloid dendritic cells. Multiple proteins from this family, including especially IL33 and S100 family proteins (S100A4, S100A7, S100A9, S100A12, S100B, and S100P) have been identified to be associated with the later stages of inflammation culminating in hyperinflammation in the lungs (Desvaux et al. 2021 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254374). IL33 and the S100 family proteins can stimulate production of IL1B, IL6 and TNFA, some of the hallmark molecules associated with hyperinflammation (reviewed in Desvaux et al. 2021).