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Malformation, Male reproductive tract leads to impaired, Fertility
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|PPARα activation in utero leading to impaired fertility in males||adjacent||High||Elise Grignard (send email)||Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Impairment in the normal development of the male reproductive tract (e.g. genital abnormality and/or cryptorchidism) can impact on fertility later in life.
Evidence Supporting this KER
Hypospadias next to cryptorchidism belongs to the most common male reproductive disorders that manifest at birth and may have a common origin in foetal life (Skakkebaek, Rajpert-De Meyts, and Main 2001) and are associated with decreased fertility (Thorup et al. 2010).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Human and Rat see "Empirical Support for Linkage"
Asklund, C, T K Jensen, K M Main, T Sobotka, N E Skakkebaek, and N Jørgensen. 2010. “Semen Quality, Reproductive Hormones and Fertility of Men Operated for Hypospadias.” International Journal of Andrology 33 (1) (February): 80–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.00957.x.
Bracka, A. 1989. “A Long-Term View of Hypospadias.” British Journal of Plastic Surgery 42 (3) (May): 251–5.
Cowin, Prue A, Elspeth Gold, Jasna Aleksova, Moira K O’Bryan, Paul M D Foster, Hamish S Scott, and Gail P Risbridger. 2010. “Vinclozolin Exposure in Utero Induces Postpubertal Prostatitis and Reduces Sperm Production via a Reversible Hormone-Regulated Mechanism.” Endocrinology 151 (2) (February): 783–92. doi:10.1210/en.2009-0982.
Eisenberg, Michael L, Michael H Hsieh, Rustin Chanc Walters, Ross Krasnow, and Larry I Lipshultz. 2011. “The Relationship between Anogenital Distance, Fatherhood, and Fertility in Adult Men.” PloS One 6 (5) (January): e18973. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018973.
Macleod, D J, R M Sharpe, M Welsh, M Fisken, H M Scott, G R Hutchison, A J Drake, and S van den Driesche. 2010. “Androgen Action in the Masculinization Programming Window and Development of Male Reproductive Organs.” International Journal of Andrology 33 (2) (April): 279–87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01005.x.
Mendiola, Jaime, Richard W Stahlhut, Niels Jørgensen, Fan Liu, and Shanna H Swan. 2011. “Shorter Anogenital Distance Predicts Poorer Semen Quality in Young Men in Rochester, New York.” Environmental Health Perspectives 119 (7) (July): 958–63. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103421.
NTP. 2005. “Multigenerational Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding When Diethylhexylphthalate (CAS 117-81-7).”
Skakkebaek, N E, E Rajpert-De Meyts, and K M Main. 2001. “Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome: An Increasingly Common Developmental Disorder with Environmental Aspects.” Human Reproduction (Oxford, England) 16 (5) (May): 972–8.
Thorup, Jorgen, Robert McLachlan, Dina Cortes, Tamara R. Nation, Adam Balic, Bridget R. Southwell, and John M. Hutson. 2010. “What Is New in Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias - A Critical Review on the Testicular Dysgenesis Hypothesis.” Journal of Pediatric Surgery. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2010.07.030.