Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|Aromatase (Cyp19a1) reduction leading to reproductive toxicity||AdverseOutcome|
|PPAR and reproductive toxicity||AdverseOutcome|
|PPARα activation leading to impaired fertility||AdverseOutcome|
|Adult Leydig Cell Dysfunction||AdverseOutcome|
|11β-hydroxylase inhibition, male infertility in fish||AdverseOutcome|
Key Event Description
capability to produce offspring
General role in biology
Fertility is the capacity to conceive or induce conception. Impairment of fertility represents disorders of male or female reproductive functions or capacity.
How It Is Measured or Detected
As a measure, fertility rate, is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population.
Domain of Applicability
Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome
Under REACH, information on reproductive toxicity is required for chemicals with an annual production/importation volume of 10 metric tonnes or more. Standard information requirements include a screening study on reproduction toxicity (OECD TG 421/422) at Annex VIII (10-100 t.p.a), a prenatal developmental toxicity study (OECD 414) on a first species at Annex IX (100-1000 t.p.a), and from March 2015 the OECD 443(Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study) is reproductive toxicity requirement instead of the two generation reproductive toxicity study (OECD TG 416). If not conducted already at Annex IX, a prenatal developmental toxicity study on a second species at Annex X (≥ 1000 t.p.a.).
Under the Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR), information is also required on reproductive toxicity for active substances as part of core data set and additional data set (EU 2012, ECHA 2013). As a core data set, prenatal developmental toxicity study (EU TM B.31) in rabbits as a first species and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (EU TM B.31) are required. OECD TG 443 (Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study) shall be considered as an alternative approach to the multi-generation study.) According to the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation (EC, 200; Annex I: 188.8.131.52): a) “reproductive toxicity” includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring; b) “effects on fertility” includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility; and c) “developmental toxicity” includes adverse effects on development of the offspring.