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Cell injury/death leads to Increased, Activation and Recruitment of Hepatic macrophages (Kupffer Cells)
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Damaged hepatocytes release reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines such as TGF-β1 and TNF-α, and chemokines which lead to oxidative stress, inflammatory signalling and finally activation of Kupffer cells (KCs). ROS generation in hepatocytes results from oxidative metabolism by NADH oxidase (NOX) and cytochrome 2E1 activation as well as through lipid peroxidation. Damaged liver cells trigger a sterile inflammatory response with activation of innate immune cells through release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which activate KCs through toll-like receptors and recruit activated neutrophils and monocytes into the liver. Central to this inflammatory response is the promotion of ROS formation by these phagocytes. Upon initiation of apoptosis hepatocytes undergo genomic DNA fragmentation and formation of apoptotic bodies; these apoptotic bodies are consecutively engulfed by KCs and cause their activation. This increased phagocytic activity strongly up-regulates NOX expression in KCs, a superoxide producing enzyme of phagocytes with profibrogenic activity, as well as nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcriptional levels with consequent harmful reaction between ROS and nitricoxide (NO), like the generation of cytotoxic peroxinitrite (N2O3). ROS and/or diffusible aldehydes also derive from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) which are additional initial triggers of KC activation.           
Evidence Supporting this KER
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
The detailed mechanisms of the KC - hepatocyte interaction and its consequences for both normal and toxicant-driven liver responses remain to be determined. KC activation followed by cytokine release is associated in some cases with evident liver damage, whereas in others this event is unrelated to liver damage or may be even protective; apparently this impact is dependent on the quantity of KC activation; excessive or prolonged release of KC mediators can switch an initially protective mechanism to a damaging inflammatory response. Evidence suggests that low levels of cytokine release from KCs constitute a survival signal that protects hepatocytes from cell death and in some cases, stimulates proliferation. 
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
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