Upstream eventAccumulation, Collagen
N/A, Liver fibrosis
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
|Protein Alkylation leading to Liver Fibrosis||adjacent||High|
|Endocytic lysosomal uptake leading to liver fibrosis||adjacent||High|
|Rattus norvegicus||Rattus norvegicus||High||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages|
Key Event Relationship Description
Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including collagen. Liver fibrosis results from an imbalance between the deposition and degradation of ECM and a change of ECM composition; the latter initiates several positive feedback pathways that further amplify fibrosis. With chronic injury, there is progressive substitution of the liver parenchyma by scar tissue. Deposition of collagen in the liver progressively disrupts the normal hepatic architecture so that the normal relationship between vascular inflow and outflow is destroyed and the normal collagen content around hepatic sinusoids in regenerating nodules becomes modified.Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis (Lee and Friedman, 2011; Bataller and Brenner, 2005; Pellicoro et al., 2014;Brancatelli et al., 2009; Rockey and Friedman, 2006; Poynard et al., 1997).
Evidence Supporting this KER
By definition, liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of ECM proteins that are produced by HSCs. The KER between this KE and the AO is undisputed (Lee and Friedman, 2011; Bataller and Brenner, 2005;Brancatelli et al., 2009; Rockey and Friedman, 2006; Poynard et al., 1997).
There is a smooth transition from ECM accumulation to liver fibrosis without a definite threshold and plenty in vivo evidence exists that ECM accumulation is a pre-stage of liver fibrosis (Lee and Friedman, 2011; Bataller and Brenner, 2005;Brancatelli et al., 2009; Rockey and Friedman, 2006; Poynard et al., 1997).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
no quantitative data
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Human: Lee and Friedman, 2011; Bataller and Brenner, 2005; Brancatelli et al., 2009; Rockey and Friedman, 2006; Poynard et al., 1997.
Rat :Liedtke et al., 2013.
- Lee, U.E. and S.L. Friedman (2011), Mechanisms of Hepatic Fibrogenesis, Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 195-206.
- Bataller, R. and D.A. Brenner (2005), Liver Fibrosis, J.Clin. Invest, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 209-218.
- Pellicoro, A. et al. (2014), Liver fibrosis and repair: immune regulation of wound healing in a solid organ, Nat Rev Immunol, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 181-194.
- Brancatelli, G. et al. (2009), Focal confluent fibrosis in cirrhotic liver: natural history studied with serial CT, AJR Am J Roentgenol, vol. 192, no. 5, pp. 1341-1347.
- Rockey, D.C. and S.L. Friedman (2006), Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, Zakim and Boyer's Hepatology, 5th edition, section 1, chapter 6, pp. 87-109.
- Poynard, T., P. Bedossa and P. Opolon (1997), Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups, Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9055, pp. 825-832.
- Liedtke, C. et al. (2013), Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects, Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 19.