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Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway leads to Neuroinflammation
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Inhibition of the mitochondrial complex I of nigro-striatal neurons leads to parkinsonian motor deficits||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate||Andrea Terron (send email)||Open for citation & comment||WPHA/WNT Endorsed|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Several chemokines and chemokines receptors (fraktalkine, CD200) control the neuron-microglia interactions and a loss of this control on the side of neurons can trigger microglial reactivity without any further positive signal required (Blank and Prinz, 2013; Chapman et al., 2000; Streit et al., 2001). Upon neuronal injury, signals termed “Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs)” are released by damaged neurons to promote microglial reactivity (Marin-Teva et al., 2011; Katsumoto et al., 2014). These are for instance detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (for review, see Hayward and Lee, 2014). TLR-2 functions as a master sensing receptor to detect neuronal death and tissue damage in many different neurological conditions including nerve transection injury, traumatic brain injury and hippocampal excitotoxicity (Hayward and Lee, 2014). Astrocytes, the other cellular actor of neuroinflammation besides microglia (Ranshoff and Brown, 2012) are also able to sense tissue injury via e.g. TLR-3 (Farina et al., 2007; Rossi, 2015), and neuronal injury can result in astrocytic activation (Efremova, 2015).
The SNpc can be particularly vulnarable to the inflammatory process; its contains more microglia than astrocytes when compared with other areas of the brain and this can promote stronger neuroinfammation (Mena et al. 2008, Kim et al. 2000).
Evidence Supporting this KER
Kreutzberg and coworkers (1995, 1996) showed that neuronal injury generally leads to activation of microglia and astrocytes. This is a general phenomenon: for instance it is always observed in ischemic damage (stroke; often in the form of glial activation following neuronal injury (Villa 2007)) as well as in stab or freeze injuries (Allahyari and Garcia, 2015). It is also observed regularly when neurons are killed by highly specific neurotoxicants that do not affect glia directly, such as injection of quinolinic acid or of 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum (Hernandez-Baltazar et al., 2013; Arlicot et al., 2014). The vicious circle of neuronal injury triggering glial activation and glial activation triggering/enhancing neurodegeneration is often assumed to be a key element in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, not just PD, but also Alzheimer's disease, prion disease and many others(Hirsch and Hunot, 2009; Tansey and Goldberg, 2009; Griffin et al., 1998; McGeer and Mc Geer, 1998; Blasko et al., 2004; Cacquevel et al., 2004; Rubio-Perez and Morillas-Ruiz, 2012; Thundyil and Lim, 2014; Barbeito et al., 2010).
Innate immune system, mainly microglia and astrocytes is primary involved in Parkinson's disease the(Lucin et al. 2009, Glass et al. 20101, Rocha et al. 2012), and neurons are knowns to actively regulate the microglia response to stress (Mott et al. 2004, Cardona et al. 2006). Presence of reactive microglia has been observed in post-mortem brain tissue from PD patients or in people following intoxication with MPTP as well as in animal models of PD (McGeer et al. 1988, Langston et al. 1999, McGeer et al. 2003, Czlonkowska et al. 1996, Walsh et al. 2011). In co-cultures of neurons and microglia neuronal damage/cell death triggers microglia activation that potentiates MPTP-induced neuronal injury (Gao et al. 2003).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
• Triggering of glia by injured neurons may not necessarily be due to the damage of neurons, but it may also be due to released synuclein (Sanchez-Guajardo, 2010)
• In a AAV alpha-synucleinoptahy model, it was shown that cytoskeletal perturbation and accumulation of alpha-synuclein were sufficient to induce microglial reactivity, suggesting that neuroinflammation appears early in the disease process and is not a result triggered by cell death (Chung et al., 2009)
• Direct effects of toxicants on glia cannot be completely excluded. They have been reported for most toxicants in one or the other publication (rotenone, paraquat, MPP+) (Zhang et al., 2014; Rappold et al., 2011; Brooks et al., 1989). The overwhelming evidence speaks against such effects for rotenone and MPP+ (Klintworth et al., 2009), but for paraquat there is evidence of direct interaction with microglial membrane NADPH oxidase (Rappold et al., 2011).
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Beside the rodent models, the concept of vicious circle with neuronal injury leading to neuroinflammation and neuroinflammation triggering or enhancing neurodegeneration is described in several neurodegenerative diseases in human, without any sex restriction (Hirsch and Hunot, 2009; Tansey and Goldberg, 2009; Griffin et al., 1998; McGeer and Mc Geer, 1998; Blasko et al., 2004; Cacquevel et al., 2004; Rubio-Perez and Morillas-Ruiz, 2012; Thundyil and Lim, 2014; Barbeito et al., 2010). Aging is an aggravating factor and increases the risk for developing a neurodegenerative disease (Kawas et al., 2000; Blasko et al., 2004).
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