Upstream eventAltered, Cardiovascular development/function
Increase, Pericardial edema
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Changes in heart morphology can result in decreased cardiac output and are associated with myocardial disease, abnormalities in cardiac loading, rhythm disorders, ischemia (restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism), and cardiac compression. Severe cardiac dysfunction can result in congestive fetal heart failure (inability of the heart to deliver adequate blood flow to organs) leading to fluid build-up in tissues and cavities (edema and effusion, respectively). Fluid buildup exerts a positive pressure on fetal cardiac chambers, which further limits the diastolic ventricular filling reserve, potentiating the diminished cardiac output and leading to fetal death (Thakur et al. 2013).