Stressor: 319

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

Acrolein

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help
User term DTXID Preferred name Casrn jchem_inchi_key indigo_inchi_key
Acrolein DTXSID5020023 Acrolein 107-02-8 HGINCPLSRVDWNT-UHFFFAOYSA-N HGINCPLSRVDWNT-UHFFFAOYSA-N

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help
Oxidative stress [MIE] Leading to Decreased Lung Function [AO]

Acrolein, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde that exerts toxicity through several mechanism, including oxidative stress (Moghe et al., 2015). Acrolein exposure decreased CFTR-mediated Cl− transport in primary murine nasal septal epithelia, in human bronchial epithelial cells grown in monolayers and in human Calu-3 lung cancer cells (Alexander et al., 2012; Raju et al., 2013), transiently reduced CBF at low concentrations (0.5‒1 mM) and induced ciliostasis at high concentrations (> 1 mM) in rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (Romet et al., 1990), and significantly increased mucin production in rats (Chen et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2009; Borchers et al., 1998; Wang et al., 2009). In addition, exposure of Fischer rats to acrolein caused a left shift in the quasi-static compliance curves and increased lung volumes, indicative of airway obstruction (Costa et al., 1986).

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help
Protein Adduct Formation

LoPachin, R. M. & DeCaprio, A. P. Protein adduct formation as a molecular mechanism in neurotoxicity. Toxicological Sciences 86, 214–225 (2005).

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Function, Decreased

Acrolein exhibited a complex dose-dependent response with respect to CFTR-mediated Cl transport in primary murine nasal septal epithelia: At 100 µM acrolein, Cl currents increased, whereas 300 µM acrolein reduced forskolin-induced total apical Cl secretion and 300 µM acrolein abolished all Cl transport. These effects were independent of cAMP, suggesting that channel activation was not PKA/cAMP phosphorylation-dependent (Alexander et al., 2012). Acrolein decreased cAMP-mediated CFTR ion transport in human bronchial epithelial cells grown in monolayers and in human Calu-3 lung cancer cells, where the response was dose-dependent. Repeated, low-level exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to acrolein (2.5 – 10 ng/mL for 7 days) had a similar effect on CFTR function and was shown to be unrelated to modulation of CFTR expression. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine could prevent acrolein-induced CFTR inhibition (Raju et al., 2013). Similar effects on CFTR function (as measured by nasal and intestinal transepithelial potential difference) were elicited by subcutaneous administration of 1 mg/kg acrolein for 4 weeks, and these could also be counteracted by co-treatment with NAC (Raju et al., 2013).

Cilia Beat Frequency, Decreased

Acrolein, an aldehyde in the gas phase of cigarette smoke, induced ciliostasis at high concentrations (> 1 mM), after 5 min of treatment, and cellular necrosis after 3 hr. However, at lower concentrations (from 0.5‒1 mM), acrolein transiently reduced the CBF to 4 Hz (Romet et al., 1990).

Activation, EGFR

EGFR activation was seen in human NCI-H292 lung cancer cells following treatment with 0.03 µM acrolein for 1 h (Deshmukh et al., 2005; Deshmukh et al., 2008).

Treatment of human normal oral keratinocytes with 5 µM acrolein for 3 h also increased EGFR phosphorylation (Tsou et al., 2021).

Occurrence, Hyperplasia of goblet cells

Treatment of primary human bronchial epithelial cells differentiated at the air-liquid interface with up to 1 µM acrolein induced a concentration dependent increase in the percentage of MUC5A-positive cells (Haswell et al., 2010).

Increase, Proliferation of goblet cells

Treatment of primary human bronchial epithelial cells differentiated at the air-liquid interface with up to 1 µM acrolein induced a concentration dependent increase in the percentage of MUC5A-positive cells (Haswell et al., 2010).

Exposure of Kunming mice to 4 ppm acrolein (nebulized) for 6 h per day, for up to 21 days caused a significant increase in the area of AB-PAS positive staining in the small airways (Liu et al., 2009).

Increase, Mucin production

Exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to 3 ppm acrolein for 6 h a day, for 12 days significantly increased lung Muc5ac gene and protein expression (Chen et al., 2013). 

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mucin content as well as Muc5ac gene and protein expression were significantly increased in the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to 3 ppm of acrolein for 6 h a day, 7 days a week, for up to 2 weeks (Liu et al., 2009).

Exposure of Sprague Dawley rats to 3 ppm acrolein for 6 h a day, 5 days a week, for up to 12 days significantly increased Muc5ac gene expression in trachea and lung (Borchers et al., 1998).

Exposure of Sprague Dawley rats to 3 ppm acrolein for 3 h a day, 7 days a week, for up to 4 days significantly increased Muc5ac gene and protein expression in the lungs (Wang et al., 2009).

Occurrence, Metaplasia of goblet cells

Exposure of Kunming mice to 4 ppm acrolein (nebulized) for 6 h per day, for up to 21 days caused goblet cell metaplasia and a significant increase in the area of AB-PAS positive staining in the small airways (Liu et al., 2009).

Exposure of Sprague–Dawley rats to 3 ppm acrolein for 3 h a day, 7 days a week, for 2 or 4 weeks caused goblet cell metaplasia and a time-dependent increase in the ratio of AB/PAS-positively staining area to total epithelial area in the airways (Wang et al., 2009).

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help